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Justin H. Rigby and Austin M. Hagan

dependent on the photobiomodulation therapy’s wavelength, which determines the therapy’s specific color of light. 2 Different wavelengths in the visible, from blue to red, and infrared spectrums have been used in treating musculoskeletal conditions in physical medicine and rehabilitation. Blue light has

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Samuel Robertson, Jonathan D. Bartlett and Paul B. Gastin

Decision-support systems are used in team sport for a variety of purposes including evaluating individual performance and informing athlete selection. A particularly common form of decision support is the traffic-light system, where color coding is used to indicate a given status of an athlete with respect to performance or training availability. However, despite relatively widespread use, there remains a lack of standardization with respect to how traffic-light systems are operationalized. This paper addresses a range of pertinent issues for practitioners relating to the practice of traffic-light monitoring in team sports. Specifically, the types and formats of data incorporated in such systems are discussed, along with the various analysis approaches available. Considerations relating to the visualization and communication of results to key stakeholders in the team-sport environment are also presented. In order for the efficacy of traffic-light systems to be improved, future iterations should look to incorporate the recommendations made here.

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

batteries for children for population level surveillance ( 21 , 33 ) and as the basis for classifying youth fitness, with levels of 42 and 35 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 for boys and girls, respectively, identified as “Clinical Red Flags”—potentially warranting intervention ( 21 , 33 ). While this explosion stems

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Susan Carter

president of the American College of Sports Medicine in 1988. Barbara was a forerunner in the field of female athlete triad (Triad)/relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). Beyond this, Barbara was also vocal in the arena of women in sport, including increased opportunity and participation, total

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Lindsey E. Eberman, Kimberly J. Bodey, Rebecca Zakrajsek, Madeline McGuire and Adam Simpson


The National Standards for Sport Coaches (2006) acknowledges that differences exist in athletes’ ability to tolerate heat. As such, Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention (S7-10), Domain 3: Physical Conditioning (S12-13), and Domain 7: Organization and Administration (S34) list expectations for coaches’ ability to recognize and respond to heat illness. However, only the American Red Cross of Greater Indianapolis (Domain 2 specific) and 13 programs are accredited by NCACE. Moreover, on-line trainings frequently used to educate novice interscholastic and recreational sport coaches provide only a cursory review of heat illness precautions, symptoms, and remedies.


The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify changes in coaches’ actual and perceived knowledge after an on-line educational intervention, as well as determine whether the educational intervention will decrease the knowledge gap.

Research Design:

A pre-test/post-test design was used to identify the effect of an educational intervention on perceived and actual knowledge of sport coaches.


Coaches (n=19; male=14, female=5) were solicited via email made available by the Indiana High School Athletic Association and the Indiana Youth Soccer Association – Olympic Development Program.


The Perceived Knowledge Questionnaire (five-item survey) and an actual knowledge assessment (two versions of 19-item quiz) were used to measure the coaches’ perceived and actual knowledge about the prevention, recognition, and treatment of exertional heat illnesses. Participants completed the “Beat the Heat: Be a Better Coach in Extreme Environmental Conditions” educational intervention.


Coaches completed the on-line educational module including pre-test and post-tests evaluations of actual and perceived knowledge.

Statistical Analysis:

Researchers performed three separate paired t-tests to identify the effect of the educational intervention on the dependent variables: actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and knowledge gap. Significance was set a-prior at p<0.05.


Participants demonstrated a significant 18.1% improvement (t18=-4.877, p<0.001, ES=0.62) in actual knowledge scores. Perceived knowledge also significantly improved (t18=-2.585, p=0.019, ES=0.25). Knowledge gap, the difference between actual knowledge and perceived knowledge, became significantly smaller (t18=4.850, p<0.001, ES=0.63).


Results indicate the on-line educational intervention improved actual knowledge, perceived knowledge, and decreased the knowledge gap. Additional large scale study of this intervention is warranted.

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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

regulatory factors, and increases the formation of new red blood cells locally. 2 These effects make PBMT a valuable treatment option for muscle recovery; however, PBMT has not become a mainstream tool for muscle recovery in clinical practice. For decades, cryotherapy has been a popular modality for

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

(DEBs) influence energy availability and increase the risk of a health syndrome known as “Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport” or “RED-S” ( Mountjoy et al., 2017 ). RED-S occurs when energy expenditure exceeds energy intake, creating an energy deficiency and a resulting compromise in health systems

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Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

( Tenforde et al., 2015 ). Outcomes of LEA The Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport (RED-S) model describes 10 health outcomes and 10 potential performance effects resulting from LEA in athletes ( Mountjoy et al., 2018 ). A summary of the current knowledge of health and performance impairments related to LEA

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

adequate EI for optimal EA. If required, assess RED-S status indicators as outlined by Mountjoy et al. ( 2018) .  In relation to the training phase/block, what are the current and long-term body composition goals? Are changes even necessary? Strategic team discussions around risk and reward to optimize

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman

experiments. Specifically, we asked participants to react to two different colored balls, as they rolled down a chute, a target (e.g., red) that was to be caught and a nontarget (e.g., blue) that was to be avoided. If Wegner’s theory of ironic processes of mental control holds for externally paced tasks, we