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Open access

Jeffer Eidi Sasaki, Cheryl A. Howe, Dinesh John, Amanda Hickey, Jeremy Steeves, Scott Conger, Kate Lyden, Sarah Kozey-Keadle, Sarah Burkart, Sofiya Alhassan, David Bassett Jr and Patty S. Freedson

Background:

Thirty-five percent of the activities assigned MET values in the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth were obtained from direct measurement of energy expenditure (EE). The aim of this study was to provide directly measured EE for several different activities in youth.

Methods:

Resting metabolic rate (RMR) of 178 youths (80 females, 98 males) was first measured. Participants then performed structured activity bouts while wearing a portable metabolic system to directly measure EE. Steady-state oxygen consumption data were used to compute activity METstandard (activity VO2/3.5) and METmeasured (activity VO2/measured RMR) for the different activities.

Results:

Rates of EE were measured for 70 different activities and ranged from 1.9 to 12.0 METstandard and 1.5 to 10.0 METmeasured.

Conclusion:

This study provides directly measured energy cost values for 70 activities in children and adolescents. It contributes empirical data to support the expansion of the Compendium of Energy Expenditures for Youth.

Open access

Yong Gao, Haichun Sun, Jie Zhuang, Jian Zhang, Lynda Ransdell, Zheng Zhu and Siya Wang

Background:

This study determined the metabolic equivalents (METs) of several activities typically performed by Chinese youth.

Methods:

Thirty youth (12 years) performed 7 activities that reflected their daily activities while Energy Expenditure (EE) was measured in a metabolic chamber.

Results:

METs were calculated as activity EE divided by participant’s measured resting metabolic rate. A MET value ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 was obtained for sleeping, watching TV, playing computer games, reading and doing homework. Performing radio gymnastics had a MET value of 2.9. Jumping rope at low effort required 3.1 METs. Except for watching TV, METs for other activities in this study were lower than Youth Compendium values.

Conclusions:

The results provide empirical evidence for more accurately assessing EE of activities commonly performed by Chinese youth. This is the first study to determine METs for radio gymnastics and jump rope in Chinese youth.

Open access

Kimberly A. Clevenger, Aubrey J. Aubrey, Rebecca W. Moore, Karissa L. Peyer, Darijan Suton, Stewart G. Trost and Karin A. Pfeiffer

Background:

Limited data are available on energy cost of common children’s games using measured oxygen consumption.

Methods:

Children (10.6 ± 2.9 years; N = 37; 26 male, 9 female) performed a selection of structured (bowling, juggling, obstacle course, relays, active kickball) and unstructured (basketball, catch, tennis, clothespin tag, soccer) activities for 5 to 30 minutes. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was calculated using Schofield’s age- and sex-specific equation. Children wore a portable metabolic unit, which measured expired gases to obtain oxygen consumption (VO2), youth METs (relative VO2/child’s calculated RMR), and activity energy expenditure (kcal/kg/min). Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data.

Results:

Relative VO2 ranged from 16.8 ± 4.6 ml/kg/min (bowling) to 32.2 ± 6.8 ml/kg/min (obstacle course). Obstacle course, relays, active kickball, soccer, and clothespin tag elicited vigorous intensity (>6 METs), the remainder elicited moderate intensity (3–6 METs).

Conclusions:

This article contributes energy expenditure data for the update and expansion of the youth compendium.

Open access

Alison L. Innerd and Liane B. Azevedo

Background:

The aim of this study is to establish the energy expenditure (EE) of a range of child-relevant activities and to compare different methods of estimating activity MET.

Methods:

27 children (17 boys) aged 9 to 11 years participated. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 routines of 6 activities ranging from sedentary to vigorous intensity. Indirect calorimetry was used to estimate resting and physical activity EE. Activity metabolic equivalent (MET) was determined using individual resting metabolic rate (RMR), the Harrell-MET and the Schofield equation.

Results:

Activity EE ranges from 123.7± 35.7 J/min/Kg (playing cards) to 823.1 ± 177.8 J/min/kg (basketball). Individual RMR, the Harrell-MET and the Schofield equation MET prediction were relatively similar at light and moderate but not at vigorous intensity. Schofield equation provided a better comparison with the Compendium of Energy Expenditure for Youth.

Conclusion:

This information might be advantageous to support the development of a new Compendium of Energy Expenditure for Youth.

Open access

symptoms of RED-S in a male international level Taekwondo (TKD) athlete. Over an 8 week period, the athlete adhered to a daily energy intake (EI) (1,690 kcal.day-1; 2.3g.kg-1 PRO, 3.4g.kg-1 CHO and 0.9g.kg-1 FAT) equating to resting metabolic rate (RMR). Body composition via Dual X-ray Absorptiometry, RMR

Open access

Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

resting metabolic rate, although it must be noted that further validation is required, since, to date, an increased resting metabolic rate has only been observed in a very small cohort of runners at 2,000 m ( Woods et al., 2017b ). Furthermore, using altitude as a means to actively decrease body mass in a

Open access

Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

the increases associated with growth ( Torun, 2005 ). Despite this, it is important to acknowledge that resting metabolic rate is higher in adolescent athletes than adults, and standard predictive equations often underestimate resting metabolic rate compared with measured (up to 300 kcal/day) rate in

Open access

Anna K. Melin, Ida A. Heikura, Adam Tenforde and Margo Mountjoy

; GH = growth hormone; PYY = peptide YY; GLP-1 = glucagon-like peptide-1; RMR = resting metabolic rate. Low Energy Availability Energy availability (EA) reflects the difference in energy intake and exercise energy expenditure in relation to fat-free mass (FFM) ( Loucks, 2014 ). Although studies have

Full access

Greg Petrucci Jr., Patty Freedson, Brittany Masteller, Melanna Cox, John Staudenmayer and John Sirard

representative of resting metabolic rate (RMR), while DLW will capture kCal values representative of the movement while bathing. Despite not reporting time-stamped data, the MS has utility as a PA exposure or outcome measure for free-living individuals. During the FL condition of the present study, all PA

Open access

Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

calories too severely, particularly below 30 kcal/kg fat-free mass, which would be roughly equivalent to resting metabolic rate for most people ( Loucks et al., 2011 ). For example, in natural male body builders, prolonged low energy availability can result in loss of LBM, hormonal imbalances