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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

if the subjects are athletes (f) Verification that the supplement was taken and induced a biological response (e.g., via muscle, blood, urine, or saliva sampling) (g) A performance protocol that is valid and sufficiently reliable to detect small but potentially meaningful changes/differences in

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

the most frequently sampled tissues, but specific types of white blood cells, urine, saliva, and hair are also used. Serum and plasma concentrations of nutrients tend to reflect recent dietary intake or acute status unless the nutrient is homeostatically regulated (e.g., calcium or sodium) or buffered

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Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix

Thinking about food can modulate neural activity in specific brain areas known to be involved in the cognitive controls of appetitive behaviors. This leads to saliva production, gastric acid, and insulin secretion ( Berthoud, 2007 ). When food is encountered, smell and taste act as additional