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Cameron J. Powden, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

characterize the phenomenon known as response shift (RS). 5 , 6 Response shift phenomenon is when an individual’s self-evaluation of a construct is altered due to changes in internal standards of measurement (recalibration), changes in values (reprioritization), or a personal redefinition of the construct

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Anita N. Lee

Coaches’ achievement is commonly evaluated by competition results or winning percentages. Teams with high winning percentages, rankings, or outstanding competition results are not only contributed by coaches, but also efforts of athletes and other stakeholders. The Standard 40 of the National Standards for Sport Coaches (2006) is to “utilize an objective and effective process for evaluation of self and staff,” which requires coaches to have the knowledge, abilities, and skills (KASs) to “collect direct feedback from athletes and identify ways to improve techniques and coaching style” and being able to perform “self-evaluation for professional growth and development” (NASPE, 2006, p. 23). The benchmarks of Standard 40 include input that should be collected from all stakeholders, such as athletes, parents, guardians, athletic administrators, and other coaches (NASPE, 2006). An effective program requires a coach to have effective communication skills, inter- and intra-personal interaction skills, leadership, and administrative skills, be able to provide positive and corrective feedback to athletes, and have the KASs to coach a sport in a selected competitive level. Evaluation methods are categorized into self-evaluation and evaluation by others, which include journals/dairies, video-analyses, checklists, surveys, and meetings/discussions. The advantages of journals/diaries are short and easy to write, and easy to retrieve and re-read, but coaches may not spend time to re-read them again. Video analyses are a great tool to allow multiple evaluators to observe coaching performance without time limit. Videos can be replayed, played in slow motion, placed online, and emailed to other evaluators to save travel time and cost. However, video analyses are time consuming to watch. It also requires video-taping equipments and skills. Checklists and surveys are easy to use, and can be used with a large number of participants, but they require specific skills to develop valid and reliable instruments. The response rate may be low unless the stakeholders are mandated to complete and return the checklists and surveys. Meetings and discussions allow direct feedback collection and conversations, but they could be redundant unless concise meeting agenda and discussion questions are designed.

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Elshan Najafov, Şeyda Özal, Ahmet Yiğit Kaptan, Coşkun Ulucaköy, Ulunay Kanatlı, Baybars Ataoğlu and Selda Başar

100 points) consists of 2 sections rated by a physician and a patient. There are 11 items (pain 1, function 10) in the patient self-evaluation section, and typically these items are used for calculating the reported ASES score. Visual Analog Scale is used for evaluation of the pain and the final pain

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Sarah Daniels, Gabriela Santiago, Jennifer Cuchna and Bonnie Van Lunen

; clinically significant abnormal neurologic Hx or examination at screening; back spasms related to major trauma or work-related injury; other severe pain that may have confounded assessment or self-evaluation of the trapezius myalgia. A total of 25 participants with Achilles [n = 5, age = 61.6 (8.0) y] or

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Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols

regulation skills, behavioral modification, cognitive restructuring, healthy self-evaluation, and adaptive coping skills. Interventions are most effective when they empower change and best fit the athlete’s self-identified needs and values ( Touyz & Hay, 2015 ) in the context of a well-coordinated, engaged

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Nathan A. Reis, Kent C. Kowalski, Amber D. Mosewich and Leah J. Ferguson

on favorable self-evaluations compared with others ( Cvencek, Fryberg, Covarrubias, & Meltzoff, 2018 ). As many of the difficult experiences faced by athletes stem from evaluations, an evaluation-based resource like self-esteem seems counterintuitive; in addition, it is not always possible to

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Bård Erlend Solstad, Andreas Ivarsson, Ellen Merethe Haug and Yngvar Ommundsen

, distress, shame, and guilt). This is because coaches are likely to feel pressure either from their internal states (e.g., self-evaluations on performance) or from the social environment (e.g., other coaches, parents) to engage in coach behaviors that will increase the likelihood of emerging victorious (i

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pluralistic qualitative approach to data collection and analysis for this study. This paper presents the core aims of this research around reviewing the main policy monitoring parameters: legislation, national policy strategies and plans, with focus on input, output, outcome and indicators, self-evaluation