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Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

between 0.018% and 1.7%. 2 Just as a comparison, the global fraction of ginger-haired people approximates 1% to 2%. 3 A major factor for the sex differences in performance is a well-established dose–response relationship between circulating testosterone and muscle mass, strength, and hemoglobin level

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Zachary R. Weber, Divya Srinivasan and Julie N. Côté

, McDaniel, Amann, & Richardson, 2012 ) and may be relevant to the discussion of sex differences in the fatigue response. In addition, Han et al. ( 2015 ) observed an interaction between fatigue and sex, where sensitivity to two-point distinguishability of women was affected by fatigue to a greater degree

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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

.pone.0160480 23. Ethun K . Chapter 9—Sex and gender differences in body composition, lipid metabolism, and glucose regulation . In: Neigh GN , Mitzelfelt MM , eds. Sex Differences in Physiology . Boston, MA : Academic Press ; 2016 : 145 – 165 . 10.1016/B978-0-12-802388-4.00009-4 24. Boning D

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Sophia Nimphius

suggested term gender/sex , because gender and sex have been considered nearly inseparable in neuropsychology and therefore it is difficult to purely assess biological sex differences that have implications for motor behavior. References 1. Kaiser A . Re-conceptualizing “sex” and “gender” in the human

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis

whom combining all age groups for each subtest item. Sex × Subtest Items × Age Groups When considering the 95 comparisons (19 Subtest Items × 5 Age Groups), only four subtest items for one age group (8–10 years) demonstrated a sex difference with males performing significantly better than females (see

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

regression modeling (MLwiN version 3.02; Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK), adopting the multiplicative, allometric approach described by Nevill et al ( 30 ). Initial (baseline) models sought to investigate sex differences across the age range 10–18 years of age, with age

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Liana M. Tennant, Erika Nelson-Wong, Joshua Kuest, Gabriel Lawrence, Kristen Levesque, David Owens, Jeremy Prisby, Sarah Spivey, Stephanie R. Albin, Kristen Jagger, Jeff M. Barrett, James D. Wong and Jack P. Callaghan

approximate midpoint (L3). As secondary objectives, we wanted to confirm whether lumped mechanical stiffness changes following clinical assessment, as well as to identify any possible sex differences in tissue stiffness. We hypothesized that clinical and lumped mechanical stiffness measures would be

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Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale

performed on female athletes: 2 studies were conducted on synchronized swimmers (now called artistic swimmers), 1 on handball players, and 1 on soccer players. By contrast, one of us (R.S.T.) has made a career in sport science by mainly studying women and sex differences in responses and adaptations to

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

within-sex difference. * p  < .05. ** p  < .01, significant within-sex difference. Table 3 Dietary and Training Data in Female and Male Athletes Categorized Into Low EA and Moderate EA Females Males Low EA ( n  = 11) Moderate EA ( n  = 24) ES a Low EA ( n  = 6) Moderate EA ( n  = 18) ES a Age (years) 25

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Alicia M. Kissinger-Knox, Nicole J. Norheim, Denise S. Vagt, Kevin P. Mulligan and Frank M. Webbe

endorsement in the structured interview compared to the computerized self-report symptom scale. Such findings are not common in the literature on sex differences, where men seem more likely to report fewer experiences of pain than women, when interviewed by women. 22 Perhaps a more parsimonious explanation