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Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

between 0.018% and 1.7%. 2 Just as a comparison, the global fraction of ginger-haired people approximates 1% to 2%. 3 A major factor for the sex differences in performance is a well-established dose–response relationship between circulating testosterone and muscle mass, strength, and hemoglobin level

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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

.pone.0160480 23. Ethun K . Chapter 9—Sex and gender differences in body composition, lipid metabolism, and glucose regulation . In: Neigh GN , Mitzelfelt MM , eds. Sex Differences in Physiology . Boston, MA : Academic Press ; 2016 : 145 – 165 . 10.1016/B978-0-12-802388-4.00009-4 24. Boning D

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Sophia Nimphius

suggested term gender/sex , because gender and sex have been considered nearly inseparable in neuropsychology and therefore it is difficult to purely assess biological sex differences that have implications for motor behavior. References 1. Kaiser A . Re-conceptualizing “sex” and “gender” in the human

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Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale

performed on female athletes: 2 studies were conducted on synchronized swimmers (now called artistic swimmers), 1 on handball players, and 1 on soccer players. By contrast, one of us (R.S.T.) has made a career in sport science by mainly studying women and sex differences in responses and adaptations to

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

Differences Between Male and Female Athletes The ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone, are responsible for many of the sex differences observed in fuel metabolism. Unlike males, females experience changes to their reproductive hormonal milieu throughout their life span. The female reproductive cycle

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. , Feddermann-Demont , N. , Alonso , J.M. , Branco , P. , & Junge , A. ( 2015 ). Sex differences in injury during top-level international athletics championships: Surveillance data from 14 championships between 2007 and 2014 . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 49 , 472 – 477 . PubMed ID: 25618889

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Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

supplement use is rare. Despite gaps in the evidence base regarding sex differences with respect to supplement use, we generally believe that female athletes respond similarly to their male counterparts when circumstances are matched. Regardless, it is clear that further scrutiny is deserved. The concept

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

use than their nonelite counterparts (SPE male: ∼48% and SPE female: ∼42%). Furthermore, sex differences were apparent, with greater use of supplemental iron reported by female athletes, whereas males used products such as protein, creatine, and vitamin E more often. Although specific supplement use

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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis

whom combining all age groups for each subtest item. Sex × Subtest Items × Age Groups When considering the 95 comparisons (19 Subtest Items × 5 Age Groups), only four subtest items for one age group (8–10 years) demonstrated a sex difference with males performing significantly better than females (see

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Ida A. Heikura, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Trent Stellingwerff, Dan Bergland, Antti A. Mero and Louise M. Burke

within-sex difference. * p  < .05. ** p  < .01, significant within-sex difference. Table 3 Dietary and Training Data in Female and Male Athletes Categorized Into Low EA and Moderate EA Females Males Low EA ( n  = 11) Moderate EA ( n  = 24) ES a Low EA ( n  = 6) Moderate EA ( n  = 18) ES a Age (years) 25