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Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser

between 0.018% and 1.7%. 2 Just as a comparison, the global fraction of ginger-haired people approximates 1% to 2%. 3 A major factor for the sex differences in performance is a well-established dose–response relationship between circulating testosterone and muscle mass, strength, and hemoglobin level

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Zachary R. Weber, Divya Srinivasan and Julie N. Côté

, McDaniel, Amann, & Richardson, 2012 ) and may be relevant to the discussion of sex differences in the fatigue response. In addition, Han et al. ( 2015 ) observed an interaction between fatigue and sex, where sensitivity to two-point distinguishability of women was affected by fatigue to a greater degree

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Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

.pone.0160480 23. Ethun K . Chapter 9—Sex and gender differences in body composition, lipid metabolism, and glucose regulation . In: Neigh GN , Mitzelfelt MM , eds. Sex Differences in Physiology . Boston, MA : Academic Press ; 2016 : 145 – 165 . 10.1016/B978-0-12-802388-4.00009-4 24. Boning D

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Sophia Nimphius

suggested term gender/sex , because gender and sex have been considered nearly inseparable in neuropsychology and therefore it is difficult to purely assess biological sex differences that have implications for motor behavior. References 1. Kaiser A . Re-conceptualizing “sex” and “gender” in the human

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Neil Armstrong and Jo Welsman

regression modeling (MLwiN version 3.02; Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK), adopting the multiplicative, allometric approach described by Nevill et al ( 30 ). Initial (baseline) models sought to investigate sex differences across the age range 10–18 years of age, with age

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Iñigo Mujika and Ritva S. Taipale

performed on female athletes: 2 studies were conducted on synchronized swimmers (now called artistic swimmers), 1 on handball players, and 1 on soccer players. By contrast, one of us (R.S.T.) has made a career in sport science by mainly studying women and sex differences in responses and adaptations to

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compositions in men and women. In patients with repaired Tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF) a reduced peakVO 2 of 70-80% is observed, possibly related to residual lesions, e.g. pulmonary regurgitation after surgery. The aim of the study was to examine whether there is a sex-difference in peakVO 2 present in patients

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Neil Armstrong

strong predictor of 20mSRT performance, that children with a higher body mass ran fewer 20-m shuttles, and that there was a large gender difference in 20mSRT performance. Boys, on average, completed 37% more shuttles than girls which is intriguing as, in 9-year-olds, the mean sex difference in aerobic

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Jo Welsman and Neil Armstrong

original studies, investigating sex differences was a primary concern. We are not concerned with sex differences here and so provide separate illustrative analyses for males and females. Table  1 summarizes the original references and relevant descriptive statistics. Participant numbers, and hence mean

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Robert J. Brychta, Vaka Rögnvaldsdóttir, Sigríður L. Guðmundsdóttir, Rúna Stefánsdóttir, Soffia M. Hrafnkelsdóttir, Sunna Gestsdóttir, Sigurbjörn A. Arngrímsson, Kong Y. Chen and Erlingur Jóhannsson

, 1986 ). All other comparisons were made using analysis of variance with Tukey’s post-hoc comparisons with Bonferroni adjustment. Using unpaired analyses, we found few sex differences in self-reported or actigraphy-measured bedtimes at either age (data not shown) and no differences in inter