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Stephan R. Fisher, Justin H. Rigby, Joni A. Mettler and Kevin W. McCurdy

. PubMed ID: 23626925 doi:10.1515/plm-2012-0032 10.1515/plm-2012-0032 23626925 2. Alves AN , Fernandes KPS , Deana AM , Bussadori SK , Mesquita-Ferrari RA . Effects of low-level laser therapy on skeletal muscle repair: a systematic review . Am J Phys Med Rehabil . 2014 ; 93 ( 12 ): 1073

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Christopher C. Webster, Kathryn M. van Boom, Nur Armino, Kate Larmuth, Timothy D. Noakes, James A. Smith and Tertius A. Kohn

in heart disease, obesity, and T2D ( Ludwig et al., 2018 ). A few days of consuming the LCHF diet can increase postprandial blood glucose concentrations in healthy individuals and reduce the capacity of skeletal muscle to oxidize a carbohydrate load, suggesting a typical state of poor glucose

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Amy J. Hector and Stuart M. Phillips

accompanying loss of lean body mass (LBM) during caloric restriction that can comprise roughly 25% of the total weight lost ( Weinheimer et al., 2010 ). Lean body mass, a significant proportion of which is skeletal muscle, is critical for good metabolic function (i.e., site of postprandial glucose disposal

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

athletes will incur injury during International Athletics Championships. This is important since approximately half of these injuries will result in a time loss and absence from sports, including both training and competing ( Feddermann-Demont et al., 2014 ). Among these injuries, skeletal muscle is the

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Walter Herzog

unexplained residual force enhancement and force depression properties of skeletal muscles (refer to the studies 3 – 5 ). Approximately 20 years after my intuitive rejection of the instability theory, I was in a position to directly test if muscles and individual sarcomeres were indeed unstable; it turned out

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

.g., cell signaling) and chronic (e.g., changes in enzyme protein content and activity) skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations (Figure  2 ). Despite the theoretical rationale for incorporating a periodization of CHO availability into an elite athlete’s training program, balancing the risk versus reward can be

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Oliver C. Witard, Ina Garthe and Stuart M. Phillips

predominance of catabolism in adipose tissue, and the gain of muscle mass (i.e., lean body mass [LBM]) is a result of predominance of anabolism in skeletal muscle, this requires the track and field athlete to practice a meticulously tailored meal plan, combined with an adequate and sports-specific strength

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Tomomasa Nakamura, Yuriko Yoshida, Hiroshi Churei, Junya Aizawa, Kenji Hirohata, Takehiro Ohmi, Shunsuke Ohji, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Mitsuhiro Enomoto, Toshiaki Ueno and Kazuyoshi Yagishita

Teeth clenching is performed in a voluntary manner by the contraction of mandibular muscles. These muscles receive innervation from the motor area of the cerebral cortex, the same as skeletal muscles of the limbs. 1 Recently, it has been reported that chewing activity has a positive effect on

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

skeletal muscle. While NO can be produced endogenously via NO synthases, supplementation with inorganic nitrate in a variety of forms (the most common of which are nitrate salts, beetroot juice) can also increase whole-body NO bioavailability. In recent years, nitrate supplementation has gained popularity

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Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo and Majke Jorgensen

interested in promoting muscle hypertrophy. Although athletes may periodically attempt to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy, key nutritional issues are broader than those pertinent to hypertrophy alone. These include the strategic timing of nutrient intake to maximize fuelling and recovery objectives, plus