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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

supplements; past 6 Months Overall: 88 Increase energy (54%); health maintenance/prevent nutritional deficiency (54%); improve recovery (52%) Sport drinks: 22 Sport bars: 14 Multivitamins and minerals: 14 Protein supplements: 9 Vitamin C: 6 Karimian & Esfahani ( 2011 ) • 250 M & 250 F • Bodybuilders, Iran

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Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

, quickly absorbed and easily digested CHO and PRO snacks are needed for these training days, and can include both commercially made products and whole foods, such as sport drinks, PRO shakes, sport bars, gels, pureed fruit pouches, trail mixes, peanut butter sandwiches, fruit and yogurt smoothies, and meat

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

that such issues are even more prevalent in older athletes. Given concerns about enamel loss and the potential for thermal sensitivity and/or caries in those who regularly consume sport drinks ( Venables et al., 2005 ), it is imperative that masters athletes engage in regular dental care. Physiological

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon and Louise M. Burke

scientific substantiation, beyond the benefits of each compound in isolation. Of note, some manufacturers add performance supplements or other ingredients to sports foods. For instance, protein shakes can contain creatine, sport drinks or sports bars can contain caffeine, and vitamins can be found in the

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glucose as well as estimated rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during steady state exercise. The results from this study support current carbohydrate intake guidelines and provide preliminary evidence for a lack of GI symptoms even at high feeding rates with a novel sport drink formulation. The