. This paper provides context on the issue of abuse in sport, outlining the incidence rates of sexual violence and important policy and education research specific to the sport environment. This paper introduces the Center and its efforts to create a safe environment for all sport participants. Estimates
Nicole Johnson, Katie Hanna, Julie Novak and Angelo P. Giardino
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols
specialization, sport environment emphasizing weight and appearance, required weight change to accommodate sport-related needs such as weight class or required aesthetic, harshly punitive training environments). Assessing Patterns of Excessive Exercise An ED assessment should include evaluation of all exercise
Samuel Robertson, Jonathan D. Bartlett and Paul B. Gastin
Decision-support systems are used in team sport for a variety of purposes including evaluating individual performance and informing athlete selection. A particularly common form of decision support is the traffic-light system, where color coding is used to indicate a given status of an athlete with respect to performance or training availability. However, despite relatively widespread use, there remains a lack of standardization with respect to how traffic-light systems are operationalized. This paper addresses a range of pertinent issues for practitioners relating to the practice of traffic-light monitoring in team sports. Specifically, the types and formats of data incorporated in such systems are discussed, along with the various analysis approaches available. Considerations relating to the visualization and communication of results to key stakeholders in the team-sport environment are also presented. In order for the efficacy of traffic-light systems to be improved, future iterations should look to incorporate the recommendations made here.
Karen Collins and Russell Medbery
The coach-athlete relationship is an important determinant in creating a healthy sport environment. Educating coaches is a critical component of cultivating a positive coach-athlete relationship. It is through systematic coaching education programs that positive coaching skills are learned (Smith & Smoll, 1997). It is equally important to accurately assess current needs and demands of state high school coaching education programs. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to systematically assess the current state of coaching education. This needs assessment included descriptions of athletic departments, funding, quality, type, and content of coaching education programs, as well as the level of satisfaction with the current coaching education delivery system. The needs assessment was conducted via a survey that was mailed to every athletic director in the state of New Hampshire. There was a 49% (n = 46) return rate after two follow-up reminders. Results were organized in four categories: financial overview, sport organizational structure, coaching education requirements, and coaching education curriculum content. Overall, results indicated: a clear need to re-evaluate the New Hampshire state requirements for coaching education; how the requirements are met; the content of state coaching education,; and how coaching education is supported financially.
Robin T. Thorpe, Greg Atkinson, Barry Drust and Warren Gregson
The increase in competition demands in elite team sports over recent years has prompted much attention from researchers and practitioners to the monitoring of adaptation and fatigue in athletes. Monitoring fatigue and gaining an understanding of athlete status may also provide insights and beneficial information pertaining to player availability, injury, and illness risk. Traditional methods used to quantify recovery and fatigue in team sports, such as maximal physical-performance assessments, may not be feasible to detect variations in fatigue status throughout competitive periods. Faster, simpler, and nonexhaustive tests such as athlete self-report measures, autonomic nervous system response via heart-rate-derived indices, and to a lesser extent, jump protocols may serve as promising tools to quantify and establish fatigue status in elite team-sport athletes. The robust rationalization and precise detection of a meaningful fluctuation in these measures are of paramount importance for practitioners working alongside athletes and coaches on a daily basis. There are various methods for arriving at a minimal clinically important difference, but these have been rarely adopted by sport scientists and practitioners. The implementation of appropriate, reliable, and sensitive measures of fatigue can provide important information to key stakeholders in team-sport environments. Future research is required to investigate the sensitivity of these tools to fundamental indicators such as performance, injury, and illness.
Chen-Kang Chang and Ching-Lin Wu
. National Taiwan Normal University, Taiwan Trend Research . Opinions toward Exercise and Sport Environment . 2017 . https://www.twtrend.com/sportsurvey/ . Accessed October 2, 2017. 12. Ministry of Education . Report of Student Participation in Physical Activity, School Year 2015–16 . https
Justine J. Reel and Emily Crouch
et al., 2007 ). As recently as 2016, an estimated 77% of rape and sexual assault incidents went unreported in the United States ( Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2017 ). Sexual Harassment and Assault in Sport The sport environment has been recognized as a microcosm of sexual harassment and assault
Lori A. Gano-Overway
educate and advocate for change to reduce abuse in sport. The articles in the Special Section provide insight into harassment and abuse experienced by girls and women in sport. However, as the authors note, there is a need for future research and policy development to provide a safe sport environment for
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney and Riley Nickols
resilient and able to function well for a finite period of time; however, ED complications resulting from prolonged states of energy deficiency and physical demands will eventually manifest with far-reaching implications for health and safety. Conclusion The sport environment has been shown to influence the
Alan L. Smith and Daniel Gould
youth sport, a matter of intensified concern in light of recent high-profile cases of athlete abuse. Gretchen Kerr, Anthony Battaglia, and Ashley Stirling make clear that athlete abuse is a systemic issue requiring concerted attention and a commitment to safe, harm-free youth sport environments. They