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Steven Loy

Citizens program, now known as 3 WINS Fitness ( www.3winsfitness.com ), based on the premise of involving students so they could understand the power they had to make world-altering change. The research is definitive. A program of community physical activity must be sustainable, accessible, and scalable

Open access

Artur Direito, Joseph J. Murphy, Matthew Mclaughlin, Jacqueline Mair, Kelly Mackenzie, Masamitsu Kamada, Rachel Sutherland, Shannon Montgomery, Trevor Shilton and on behalf of the ISPAH Early Career Network

population levels of PA exist but need to be prioritized and scaled up to achieve the World Health Organization’s targets to reduce physical inactivity levels by 15% by 2030 10 and assist in achieving the United Nations’ (UN) 2030 sustainable development goals (SDGs; Figure  1 ). 11 Figure 1 —Links between

Open access

Dawn C. Mackey, Alexander D. Perkins, Kaitlin Hong Tai, Joanie Sims-Gould and Heather A. McKay

options to promote sustainability over the long-term. The personal action plan specified what, where, when, how, and with whom physical activities would take place. The activity coach encouraged participants to work toward undertaking physical activity three to five times per week in a progressive manner

Open access

Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. Preparticipation predictors for Championships injury and illness have been identified ( Timpka et al., 2017 ). For instance, athletes who reported an illness symptom causing anxiety before the competition were five times more likely to sustain an injury during the championships. Moreover, intensive training camps

Open access

Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

Adolescent, female, and masters athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the specific demands of age- and gender-related physiological changes. Dietary education and recommendations for these special population athletes require a focus on eating for long-term health, with special consideration given to “at-risk” dietary patterns and nutrients (e.g., sustained restricted eating, low calcium, vitamin D and/or iron intakes relative to requirements). Recent research highlighting strategies to address age-related changes in protein metabolism and the development of tools to assist in the management of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport are of particular relevance to special population athletes. Whenever possible, special population athletes should be encouraged to meet their nutrient needs by the consumption of whole foods rather than supplements. The recommendation of dietary supplements (particularly to young athletes) overemphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training/dietary strategies.

Open access

Pawel Zembura, Aleksandra Goldys and Hanna Nalecz

Background:

Poland’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the first assessment of child and youth physical activity (PA) in Poland using the Active Healthy Kids Global Alliance grading system. The main goal was to summarize and describe the current state of child and youth PA to increase awareness and surveillance.

Methods:

The systematic methodology that underpins the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card was adapted and applied to the Polish report card. The best available data were consolidated, reviewed by a group of experts, and used to assign the letter grades to 9 core PA indicators on a scale ranging from A (highest) to F (lowest).

Results:

The 9 indicators were graded as such: 1) Overall Physical Activity (D), 2) Organized Sport Participation (C), 3) Active Play (INC), 4) Active Transportation (C), 5) Sedentary Behaviors (D), 6) Family and Peers (C), 7) School (B), 8) Community and the Built Environment (C), and 9) Government Strategies and Investments (C).

Conclusions:

The final grades show a strong role of school in providing PA for children and youth in Poland. However, promotion of school-based sport participation appears to be insufficient by itself to sustainably promote PA in this group.

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

The use of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in all sports and at all levels of competition, as it is in the general population. For the athlete training at the limits of what is sustainable, or for those seeking a shortcut to achieving their aims, supplements offer the prospect of bridging the gap between success and failure. Surveys show, however, that this is often not an informed choice and that the knowledge level among consumers is often low and that they are often influenced in their decisions by individuals with an equally inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplement use may do more harm than good, unless it is based on a sound analysis of the evidence. Where a deficiency of an essential nutrient has been established by appropriate investigations, supplementation can provide a rapid and effective correction of the problem. Supplements can also provide a convenient and time-efficient solution to achieving the necessary intake of key nutrients such as protein and carbohydrate. Athletes contemplating the use of supplements should consider the potential for both positive and negative outcomes. Some ergogenic supplements may be of benefit to some athletes in some specific contexts, but many are less effective than is claimed. Some may be harmful to health of performance and some may contain agents prohibited by anti-doping regulations. Athletes should make informed choices that maximize the benefits while minimizing the risks.

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Maureen R. Weiss

demands) and mediates the relationship between movement competence and participation behavior. Children who demonstrate skilled behavior will appraise abilities favorably and be motivated to continue in an activity, sustain effort, and perform at a higher level. Greater participation motivation should

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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

sustainability. Statistical Analysis Statistical analyses were carried out with SPSS Statistics 22 (IBM, Armonk, NY) and Microsoft Excel 2016 (Microsoft, Redmond, WA). Gaussian distribution of energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intakes, and study costs was assessed with the Shapiro–Wilk goodness-of-fit test

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Trent Stellingwerff

composition periodization coupled with performance and health outcomes. The overriding ethos was that it is not sustainable from a health and performance perspective to be at peak body composition year-round, so body composition needs to be strategically periodized. Although correlative in nature, this case