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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

. Preparticipation predictors for Championships injury and illness have been identified ( Timpka et al., 2017 ). For instance, athletes who reported an illness symptom causing anxiety before the competition were five times more likely to sustain an injury during the championships. Moreover, intensive training camps

Open access

Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

Adolescent, female, and masters athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the specific demands of age- and gender-related physiological changes. Dietary education and recommendations for these special population athletes require a focus on eating for long-term health, with special consideration given to “at-risk” dietary patterns and nutrients (e.g., sustained restricted eating, low calcium, vitamin D and/or iron intakes relative to requirements). Recent research highlighting strategies to address age-related changes in protein metabolism and the development of tools to assist in the management of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport are of particular relevance to special population athletes. Whenever possible, special population athletes should be encouraged to meet their nutrient needs by the consumption of whole foods rather than supplements. The recommendation of dietary supplements (particularly to young athletes) overemphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training/dietary strategies.

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Susan M. Shirreffs and Alan Vernec

The use of dietary supplements is widespread among athletes in all sports and at all levels of competition, as it is in the general population. For the athlete training at the limits of what is sustainable, or for those seeking a shortcut to achieving their aims, supplements offer the prospect of bridging the gap between success and failure. Surveys show, however, that this is often not an informed choice and that the knowledge level among consumers is often low and that they are often influenced in their decisions by individuals with an equally inadequate understanding of the issues at stake. Supplement use may do more harm than good, unless it is based on a sound analysis of the evidence. Where a deficiency of an essential nutrient has been established by appropriate investigations, supplementation can provide a rapid and effective correction of the problem. Supplements can also provide a convenient and time-efficient solution to achieving the necessary intake of key nutrients such as protein and carbohydrate. Athletes contemplating the use of supplements should consider the potential for both positive and negative outcomes. Some ergogenic supplements may be of benefit to some athletes in some specific contexts, but many are less effective than is claimed. Some may be harmful to health of performance and some may contain agents prohibited by anti-doping regulations. Athletes should make informed choices that maximize the benefits while minimizing the risks.

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environmental factors such as raw material availability and economic variables is a necessity for business people, entrepreneurs, or managers. Adaptation is believed to be compulsory for business sustainability and likely reduces the risk of suffering an organizational crisis. In elite sports, practitioners

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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

individual endogenous (i.e., muscle and liver glycogen) and exogenous CHO (i.e., CHO consumed before and/or during exercise) that is available to sustain the required training or racing intensity and duration ( Impey et al., 2018 ). According to this definition, it is possible to have insufficient CHO

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Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

dehydration. Although the risk of dehydration is low in the events themselves due to their short durations (< 2 to < 30 min), moderate risk for these events stems from daily high and sustained sweat losses which could carry over to negatively affect training and performance from day-to-day. Fluid availability

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

sustained for the distance, and running/walking economy. For example, a V ˙ O 2 max of 70 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 sustains at 90% for 10,000 m (i.e., 63 ml·kg −1 ·min −1 ) and a running economy of 190 ml·kg −1 ·km −1 translates to a sustainable speed of 19.9 km/hr [(63 × 60)/190] and an expected 10,000-m time

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

nutritional strategies Sprints ( Slater et al., 2019 ) 100 m, 100/110 m hurdles 200, 400, 400 m hurdles 4 × 100, 4 × 400 relays • Performance determined primarily by reaction time, acceleration, maximum running velocity, and the ability to sustain this in the presence of increasing fatigue • Large dependence

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David M. Shaw, Fabrice Merien, Andrea Braakhuis, Daniel Plews, Paul Laursen and Deborah K. Dulson

, 2015 ), with the contribution of fat-derived fuel largely influenced by exercise intensity, training status, and diet ( Maunder et al., 2018 ). These events require acute dietary interventions to sustain endogenous fuel supply, with the most common and effective approaches including carbohydrate

Open access

Alan J. McCubbin, Bethanie A. Allanson, Joanne N. Caldwell Odgers, Michelle M. Cort, Ricardo J.S. Costa, Gregory R. Cox, Siobhan T. Crawshay, Ben Desbrow, Eliza G. Freney, Stephanie K. Gaskell, David Hughes, Chris Irwin, Ollie Jay, Benita J. Lalor, Megan L.R. Ross, Gregory Shaw, Julien D. Périard and Louise M. Burke

statement summarizes these issues and the nutrition and hydration strategies with which they can be addressed. Physiological Effects of Exertional Heat Stress Thermoregulation During exercise, high body temperatures arise from excess heat storage due to sustained imbalance between internal heat production