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Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

, 1972 ). The primary factors that influence total sweat loss (L; Sweating Rate × Time) include body size, exercise intensity, exercise duration, the environment, and choice of clothing. These factors explain more than 90% of the widely different sweat losses expected among athletes ( Gagnon et al., 2013

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

-race fluid plans may be beneficial. All strategies should be well practiced in training and fine tuned for the specific event. In the case of Athletes who undertake distance and ultradistance events at slower paces with lower sweat rates, specific advice against overconsuming fluids may be necessary to avoid

Open access

Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman and Julien D. Périard

may lose 35% of their adaptations after 2 weeks without heat exposure. Training regularly has been suggested to aid in maintaining adaptation, however, as athletes can achieve high core temperatures and sweat rates when training vigorously, even in cooler climates. Therefore, it is recommended to

Open access

Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

large volumes despite high sweat rates explains BM losses of up to 10% in race winners in hot-weather marathons (e.g.,  Beis et al., 2012 ). We recommend that athletes develop a personalized and practiced race plan that optimizes fluid and CHO status within the prevailing conditions and opportunities of

Open access

Jennifer Sygo, Alicia Kendig Glass, Sophie C. Killer and Trent Stellingwerff

absolute terms compared with jumpers or CE athletes, due to their higher BM. Future research should endeavor to characterize the energy demands of training, as well as the dietary habits of throwers. While sweat rate and fluid balance studies on throwers are lacking, their larger body surface area and

Open access

Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

tolerate ingestion of a CHO-electrolyte solution at a rate similar to their sweat rate during 90 min of moderate-intensity running. This was achieved without any noticeable change in the gastric emptying rate. Moreover, it seems that gastric emptying can be specifically adapted to the type of nutrient, as

Open access

Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

proper hydration ( Armstrong et al., 2016 ). However, past recommendations emphasizing this were largely intended for situations in which dehydration might develop rapidly from high sweat rates associated with high exercise intensities ( Hew-Butler et al., 2015 ), which is not applicable to moderate