Decision-support systems are used in team sport for a variety of purposes including evaluating individual performance and informing athlete selection. A particularly common form of decision support is the traffic-light system, where color coding is used to indicate a given status of an athlete with respect to performance or training availability. However, despite relatively widespread use, there remains a lack of standardization with respect to how traffic-light systems are operationalized. This paper addresses a range of pertinent issues for practitioners relating to the practice of traffic-light monitoring in team sports. Specifically, the types and formats of data incorporated in such systems are discussed, along with the various analysis approaches available. Considerations relating to the visualization and communication of results to key stakeholders in the team-sport environment are also presented. In order for the efficacy of traffic-light systems to be improved, future iterations should look to incorporate the recommendations made here.
Samuel Robertson, Jonathan D. Bartlett and Paul B. Gastin
Robin T. Thorpe, Greg Atkinson, Barry Drust and Warren Gregson
The increase in competition demands in elite team sports over recent years has prompted much attention from researchers and practitioners to the monitoring of adaptation and fatigue in athletes. Monitoring fatigue and gaining an understanding of athlete status may also provide insights and beneficial information pertaining to player availability, injury, and illness risk. Traditional methods used to quantify recovery and fatigue in team sports, such as maximal physical-performance assessments, may not be feasible to detect variations in fatigue status throughout competitive periods. Faster, simpler, and nonexhaustive tests such as athlete self-report measures, autonomic nervous system response via heart-rate-derived indices, and to a lesser extent, jump protocols may serve as promising tools to quantify and establish fatigue status in elite team-sport athletes. The robust rationalization and precise detection of a meaningful fluctuation in these measures are of paramount importance for practitioners working alongside athletes and coaches on a daily basis. There are various methods for arriving at a minimal clinically important difference, but these have been rarely adopted by sport scientists and practitioners. The implementation of appropriate, reliable, and sensitive measures of fatigue can provide important information to key stakeholders in team-sport environments. Future research is required to investigate the sensitivity of these tools to fundamental indicators such as performance, injury, and illness.
Katherine A. Tamminen, Patrick Gaudreau, Carolyn E. McEwen and Peter R.E. Crocker
Efforts to regulate emotions can influence others, and interpersonal emotion regulation within teams may affect athletes’ own affective and motivational outcomes. We examined adolescent athletes’ (N = 451, N teams = 38) self- and interpersonal emotion regulation, as well as associations with peer climate, sport enjoyment, and sport commitment within a multilevel model of emotion regulation in teams. Results of multilevel Bayesian structural equation modeling showed that athletes’ self-worsening emotion regulation strategies were negatively associated with enjoyment while other-improving emotion regulation strategies were positively associated enjoyment and commitment. The team-level interpersonal emotion regulation climate and peer motivational climates were also associated with enjoyment and commitment. Team-level factors moderated some of the relationships between athletes’ emotion regulation with enjoyment and commitment. These findings extend previous research by examining interpersonal emotion regulation within teams using a multilevel approach, and they demonstrate the importance of person- and team-level factors for athletes’ enjoyment and commitment.
Darren J. Burgess
Research describing load-monitoring techniques for team sport is plentiful. Much of this research is conducted retrospectively and typically involves recreational or semielite teams. Load-monitoring research conducted on professional team sports is largely observational. Challenges exist for the practitioner in implementing peer-reviewed research into the applied setting. These challenges include match scheduling, player adherence, manager/coach buy-in, sport traditions, and staff availability. External-load monitoring often attracts questions surrounding technology reliability and validity, while internal-load monitoring makes some assumptions about player adherence, as well as having some uncertainty around the impact these measures have on player performance This commentary outlines examples of load-monitoring research, discusses the issues associated with the application of this research in an elite team-sport setting, and suggests practical adjustments to the existing research where necessary.
Kelly S. Witte
The purpose of this study was to identify and compare coaching leadership preferences of 1,859 varsity student-athletes participating at the Division III level in the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The athletes attended one of fourteen colleges and universities located in the Midwest. Teams were selected according to task dependence and the existence of both male and female squads. Three independent (individual) sports and three interdependent (team) sports were selected: men’s and women’s basketball, men’s and women’s soccer, men’s baseball and women’s softball, men’s and women’s swimming, men’s and women’s tennis, and men’s and women’s track & field. The Revised Leadership Scale for Sport (Zhang, Jensen, & Mann, 1997) was used to assess participants’ leadership preferences on the dimensions of training and instruction behavior, democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, social support behavior, positive feedback behavior, and situational consideration behavior. Females had a higher preference for positive feedback and situational consideration, whereas males expressed stronger preferences for social support and autocratic behavior. Individual sport athletes demonstrated a higher preference for democratic behavior, positive feedback, training and instruction, situational consideration, and social support than did team sport athletes and team sport athletes preferred autocratic behavior more than athletes participating in individual sports. The gender by task dependence interaction was not significant. These results suggest that differences in athletes and particular sports teams may facilitate specific leadership behaviors
Lindsey C. Blom, Steven R. Wininger, Rebecca Zakraj sek and Kurtis Kirkpatrick
To help develop consistent training for coaches, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education created the National Standards for Sport Coaches (NSSC), which consists of eight domains and 40 standards. The purpose of this study was to examine high school coaches’ perceived knowledge related to the NSSC, continuing education, and sources of feedback. Information was gathered from 162 male and female team sport coaches from Mississippi and Kentucky. Four main findings emerged: 1) coaches perceived themselves to be above average in all 40 standards; 2) there were no significant differences between states of Kentucky and Mississippi for perceived knowledge in any domain 3) a difference in perceived knowledge based on years of coaching was found for Domain 5: Teaching and Communication; and 4) coaches reported most frequently using assistant coaches, their self, athletic directors, and athletes as sources of coaching feedback.
Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover and Carly Wright
Approximately 54% of high school students reported playing on at least one sports team in the previous year (2017 YRBSS). Approximately 56% and 50% of 6-12 year old children reported playing a team sport (organized or unorganized) or an individual sport, respectively, at least once a year (State of Play 2017
Lowri C. Edwards, Richard Tyler, Dylan Blain, Anna Bryant, Neil Canham, Lauren Carter-Davies, Cain Clark, Tim Evans, Ceri Greenall, Julie Hobday, Anwen Jones, Marianne Mannello, Emily Marchant, Maggie Miller, Graham Moore, Kelly Morgan, Sarah Nicholls, Chris Roberts, Michael Sheldrick, Karen Thompson, Nalda Wainwright, Malcolm Ward, Simon Williams and Gareth Stratton
/50 resulting in a 34% of 3–17 year olds meeting activity guidelines in Wales. Organised Sport and Physical Activity C + 55% of children and young people aged 11–16 years took part in organised activities outside of school/outside of lessons. These children took part in: i. Organised team sport activities (e
Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim and Louise M. Burke
simulations of team sport activity, caffeine ingestion (6 mg/kg BM, 50 min before warm-up) improved total work performed during the first (+8.5%) and second half (+7.6%) of a 2 × 36 min repeat-sprint protocol in moderately-trained team sport athletes ( Schneiker et al., 2006 ). Furthermore, a 1% improvement
Romain Meeusen and Lieselot Decroix
-sprint, or team sport. A low dose (up to 6 mg·kg −1 ) is likely to improve intermittent, but not repeated, sprint performance ( Bishop, 2010 ). Furthermore, there is no apparent increase in the rate of fatigue development attributable to initial improvements in work and power achieved during intermittent