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Xiaolin Yang, Irinja Lounassalo, Anna Kankaanpää, Mirja Hirvensalo, Suvi P. Rovio, Asko Tolvanen, Stuart J.H. Biddle, Harri Helajärvi, Sanna H. Palomäki, Kasper Salin, Nina Hutri-Kähönen, Olli T. Raitakari and Tuija H. Tammelin

reclining posture, 2 and it should be distinguished from “physical inactivity.” 1 Of various sedentary behaviors, television viewing (TV) time still remains the most prevalent in Finland despite the proliferation of other electronic devices. 3 Increased TV time has been found to be associated with more

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Yong Gao, Haichun Sun, Jie Zhuang, Jian Zhang, Lynda Ransdell, Zheng Zhu and Siya Wang

Background:

This study determined the metabolic equivalents (METs) of several activities typically performed by Chinese youth.

Methods:

Thirty youth (12 years) performed 7 activities that reflected their daily activities while Energy Expenditure (EE) was measured in a metabolic chamber.

Results:

METs were calculated as activity EE divided by participant’s measured resting metabolic rate. A MET value ranging from 0.8 to 1.2 was obtained for sleeping, watching TV, playing computer games, reading and doing homework. Performing radio gymnastics had a MET value of 2.9. Jumping rope at low effort required 3.1 METs. Except for watching TV, METs for other activities in this study were lower than Youth Compendium values.

Conclusions:

The results provide empirical evidence for more accurately assessing EE of activities commonly performed by Chinese youth. This is the first study to determine METs for radio gymnastics and jump rope in Chinese youth.

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Lauren Burch, Matthew Zimmerman and Beth Fielding Lloyd

as those on such pilgrimages took their place in the fan group in a manner beyond viewing on television and purchasing merchandise. In regard to individual clubs’ ability to create messages that are meant to be relayed directly to the fan base, Borges looked at the official television arms of S

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Deirdre M. Harrington, Sarahjane Belton, Tara Coppinger, Muireann Cullen, Alan Donnelly, Kieran Dowd, Teresa Keating, Richard Layte, Marie Murphy, Niamh Murphy, Elaine Murtagh and Catherine Woods

Background:

Physical activity (PA) levels are a key performance indicator for policy documents in Ireland. The first Ireland Report Card on Physical Activity in Children and Youth aims to set a robust baseline for future surveillance of indicators related to PA in children and youth.

Methods:

Data collected between 2003−2010 on more than 35,000 7- to 18-year-old children and youth were used and graded using a standardized grading system for 10 indicators.

Results:

Grades assigned for the indicators were as follows: overall physical activity levels, D-; sedentary behavior (TV viewing), C-; organized sport participation, C-: physical education, D-; active play, inconclusive (INC); active transportation, D; school, C-, community and the built environment, B; family, INC; and government, INC.

Conclusions:

PA recommendations exist in Ireland but this Report Card has shown that participation is still low. A number of promising policies, programs and services are in place but these require thorough evaluation and adequate resourcing. Agreement and implementation of a common framework for the systematic surveillance of indictors related to PA of children and youth is necessary to monitor change over time and ensure the impact of promising work is captured.

Open access

Anja Groβek, Christiana van Loo, Gregory E. Peoples, Markus Hagenbuchner, Rachel Jones and Dylan P. Cliff

Background:

This study reports energy expenditure (EE) data for lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children.

Methods:

Eleven children aged 3 to 6 years (mean age = 4.8 ± 0.9; 55% boys) completed 12 semistructured activities including sedentary behaviors (SB), light (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activities (MVPA) over 2 laboratory visits while wearing a portable metabolic system to measure EE.

Results:

Mean EE values for SB (TV, reading, tablet and toy play) were between 0.9 to 1.1 kcal/min. Standing art had an energy cost that was 1.5 times that of SB (mean = 1.4 kcal/min), whereas bike riding (mean = 2.5 kcal/min) was similar to LPA (cleaning-up, treasure hunt and walking) (mean = 2.3 to 2.5 kcal/min), which had EE that were 2.5 times SB. EE for MVPA (running, active games and obstacle course) was 4.2 times SB (mean = 3.8 to 3.9 kcal/min).

Conclusion:

EE values reported in this study can contribute to the limited available data on the energy cost of lifestyle and ambulatory activities in young children.

Open access

Wonwoo Byun, Allison Barry and Jung-Min Lee

Background:

There has been a call for updating the Youth Compendium of Energy Expenditure (YCEE) by including energy expenditure (EE) data of young children (ie, < 6-year-old children). Therefore, this study examined the activity EE in 3 to 6 year old children using indirect calorimetry.

Methods:

Using Oxycon Mobile portable indirect calorimetry, both the oxygen consumption (VO2) and the EE of 28 children (Girls: 46%, Age: 4.8 ± 1.0, BMI: 16.4 ± 1.6) were measured while they performed various daily living activities (eg, watching TV, playing with toys, shooting baskets, soccer).

Results:

Across physical activities, averages of VO2 (ml·kg·min-1), VO2 (L·min-1), and EE ranged from 8.9 ± 1.5 to 33.3 ± 4.8 ml·kg·min-1, from 0.17 ± 0.04 to 0.64 ± 0.16 L·min-1, and from 0.8 ± 0.2 to 3.2 ± 0.7 kcal·min-1, respectively.

Conclusions:

These findings will contribute to the upcoming YCEE update.

Open access

Deirdre M. Harrington, Marie Murphy, Angela Carlin, Tara Coppinger, Alan Donnelly, Kieran P. Dowd, Teresa Keating, Niamh Murphy, Elaine Murtagh, Wesley O’Brien, Catherine Woods and Sarahjane Belton

Background:

Physical activity (PA) is a key performance indicator for policy documents in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. Building on baseline grades set in 2014, Ireland’s second Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth allows for continued surveillance of indicators related to PA in children and youth.

Methods:

Data and information were extracted and collated for 10 indicators and graded using an international standardized grading system.

Results:

Overall, 7 grades stayed the same, 2 increased, and 1 decreased. Grades were assigned as follows: Overall PA, D (an increase); Sedentary Behavior (TV), C-; Physical Education, D-; Active Play, Incomplete/Inconclusive (INC); Active Transportation, D; School, D (a decrease); Home (Family), INC; Community and the Built Environment, B+ (an increase); and Government, INC. Unlike 2014’s report card, different grades for the Republic (C-) and Northern Ireland (C+) were assigned for Organized Sport Participation.

Conclusions:

Although the grade for Overall PA levels increased to a D, this may reflect the increased quality and quantity of data available. The double burden of low PA and high sedentary levels are concerning and underscore the need for advocacy toward, and surveillance of, progress in achieving targets set by the new National Physical Activity Plan in the Republic and obesity and sport plans in the North.

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Chalchisa Abdeta, Zelalem Teklemariam, Alem Deksisa and Endashew Abera

and youth spend on screen time such as mobile game, play station and TV views for no more than 2 hours per day. Physical Fitness INC There is no adequate information in the country to assign a grade for this indicator. Family and Peers F Approximately 14% of children and youth are encouraged and get

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Brigid M. Lynch, Charles E. Matthews, Katrien Wijndaele and on behalf of the Sedentary Behaviour Council of the International Society for Physical Activity and Health

”), and Screen time (“period of activities done in front of an electronic screen, such as watching television , working on a computer, or playing video games”). These new MeSH terms will not be retrospectively applied but will be added to new research published in MEDLINE from January 2019 onward. The

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Yolanda Demetriou, Antje Hebestreit, Anne K. Reimers, Annegret Schlund, Claudia Niessner, Steffen Schmidt, Jonas David Finger, Michael Mutz, Klaus Völker, Lutz Vogt, Alexander Woll and Jens Bucksch

Behaviours D- About 80% of children and adolescents spend more than two hours per day sedentary, watching TV or using other screen devises. The results range across studies depending on the measurement instrument and the type of behaviour in focus (screen based/ total sedentary behaviour). 2 , 5 Physical