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Keith Baar

due to the high playing load and intensity. In a preliminary report from the Australian National Basketball League, 52.3% of players reported patellar tendon pain that limited performance ( Hannington et al., 2017 ), suggesting that the prevalence of this injury is high at the elite level. Typically

Open access

Alireza Esmaeili, Andrew M. Stewart, William G. Hopkins, George P. Elias and Robert J. Aughey


Detrimental changes in tendon structure increase the risk of tendinopathies. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of individual internal and external training loads and leg dominance on changes in the Achilles and patellar tendon structure.


The internal structure of the Achilles and patellar tendons of both limbs of 26 elite Australian footballers was assessed using ultrasound tissue characterization at the beginning and the end of an 18-wk preseason. Linear-regression analysis was used to estimate the effects of training load on changes in the proportion of aligned and intact tendon bundles for each side. Standardization and magnitude-based inferences were used to interpret the findings.


Possibly to very likely small increases in the proportion of aligned and intact tendon bundles occurred in the dominant Achilles (initial value 81.1%; change, ±90% confidence limits 1.6%, ±1.0%), nondominant Achilles (80.8%; 0.9%, ±1.0%), dominant patellar (75.8%; 1.5%, ±1.5%), and nondominant patellar (76.8%; 2.7%, ±1.4%) tendons. Measures of training load had inconsistent effects on changes in tendon structure; eg, there were possibly to likely small positive effects on the structure of the nondominant Achilles tendon, likely small negative effects on the dominant Achilles tendon, and predominantly no clear effects on the patellar tendons.


The small and inconsistent effects of training load are indicative of the role of recovery between tendon-overloading (training) sessions and the multivariate nature of the tendon response to load, with leg dominance a possible influencing factor.

Open access

Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

injuries, that is, skeletal muscle, bone, tendon, and ligament. We include a review of the extant literature that has looked at nutrition to prevent injuries and increase repair, as well as considering the change in energy requirements during the injury period. Nutrition to Prevent and Treat Muscle

Open access

Genki Hatano, Shigeyuki Suzuki, Shingo Matsuo, Satoshi Kataura, Kazuaki Yokoi, Taizan Fukaya, Mitsuhiro Fujiwara, Yuji Asai and Masahiro Iwata

technique commonly used to acutely increase ROM. 11 – 14 The proposed mechanisms for this include an increased stretch tolerance due to altered sensation 12 , 14 , 15 and a change in the stiffness/viscoelastic properties of the muscle–tendon unit, 12 – 14 , 16 – 18 which result in improved movement and

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Pier Paolo Mariani, Luca Laudani, Jacopo E. Rocchi, Arrigo Giombini and Andrea Macaluso

autologous bone-patellar tendon-bone graft, and (6) physical therapy carried out at same center with the same protocol for 3 months. Another reason to limit our investigation to the early postoperative period was because it is difficult to have a homogenous cohort of patients who follow the same protocol of

Open access

Sarah Daniels, Gabriela Santiago, Jennifer Cuchna and Bonnie Van Lunen

treatment or prescription pain meds at enrollment, and agree to document all pain meds used during the study period. Exclusion criteria: Hx or current Dx of a tendon tear; known neuropathy; prisoners; smokers; type 1 or type 2 diabetes; surgery in target Tx area within the last 6 mo; nonambulatory

Open access

Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

; range = 18–52) who underwent ACLR using a semitendinosus tendon autograft were followed for 16 wk postoperatively. Subjects were randomly assigned to intervention group (n = 22; M = 12, F = 10; traditional rehabilitation with BFR) or to the control group (n = 22; M = 13, F = 9; traditional

Open access

David M. Werner and Joaquin A. Barrios

, patellar tendon. Interrater reliability was good to excellent (.732–.973) among the 3 observers (Table  2 ). The chi-square test of independence ( P  < .001) suggested break rate differed by group. For the post hoc assessment, the standardized residual of the break frequencies for the athletes was −2

Free access

Sergio Jiménez-Rubio, Archit Navandar, Jesús Rivilla-García and Victor Paredes-Hernández

injuries in professional football—analysis of hamstring injuries . Br J Sports Med . 2004 ; 38 ( 1 ): 36 – 41 . PubMed ID: 14751943 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2002.002352 14751943 10.1136/bjsm.2002.002352 5. Beltran L , Ghazikhanian V , Padron M , Beltran J . The proximal hamstring muscle-tendon

Open access

Matt Hausmann, Jacob Ober and Adam S. Lepley

aspects of musculoskeletal injuries, such as patient-reported outcomes. In addition, further evaluation of deep oscillation therapy for other types of tissue injuries (ie, muscle, tendon, ligament) would add valuable information for its clinical utility in the future. Clinicians incorporating deep