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Jeremy Hapeta, Rochelle Stewart-Withers and Farah Palmer

This article seeks to make higher level contributions to the nexus between theory and practice within sport for social change by shining light on Indigenous theory and practice in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). First, we acknowledge the forward and timely thinking of this special issue for providing

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Ashley E. Stirling

Coach education is the key to improved coaching. In order for coach education initiatives to be effective though, the conceptualization of those initiatives must be developed based on empirical learning theory. It is suggested that Kolb’s theory of experiential learning may be an appropriate learning theory to apply to coach education. This paper outlines how Kolb’s theory of experiential learning was used in the development of Canada’s National Coaching Certification Program coach education module entitled “Empower +: Creating Positive and Healthy Sport Experiences.” The module is summarized briefly, and Kolb’s six key tenets of experiential learning are reviewed. Applications of each tenet within the coach education module are highlighted, and recommendations are made for future evaluation and research.

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Jon Welty Peachey, Nico Schulenkorf and Ramon Spaaij

Practice cannot be blind to theory, and theory cannot be blind to practice. This is simple to say yet immensely difficult to do. ( Morrison & van der Werf, 2012 , p. 400) Theory development around sport for social change agendas has received greater attention from scholars over the past 10 years

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Genevieve F. Dunton, Michael Cousineau and Kim D. Reynolds

Background:

Policy strategies aimed at modifying aspects of the social, physical, economic, and educational environments have been proposed as potential solutions to the growing problem of physical inactivity. To develop effective physical activity policies in these and other areas, greater understanding of how and why policies successfully impact behavior change is needed.

Methods:

The current paper proposes a conceptual framework explaining how policy strategies map onto health behavior theoretical variables and processes thought to lead to physical activity change. This framework is used to make hypotheses about the potential effectiveness of different policy strategies.

Results:

Health behavior theories suggest that policies providing information may be particularly useful for individuals who are not yet considering or have only recently begun to consider becoming more physically active. Policies that provide opportunities may be less effective for individuals who do not find physical activity to be inherently fun and interesting. Policies that offer incentives or require the behavior may not be particularly useful at promoting long-term changes in physical activity.

Conclusion:

Exploring possible connections between policy strategies and theoretical constructs can help to clarify how each approach might work and for whom it may be the most appropriate to implement.

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Simon J. Sebire, Mark J. Edwards, Kenneth R. Fox, Ben Davies, Kathryn Banfield, Lesley Wood and Russell Jago

The implementation, fidelity, and receipt of a self-determination-theory-based after-school physical activity intervention (Action 3:30) delivered by teaching assistants (TAs) was examined using a mixed-methods process evaluation. Physical activity motivation and need satisfaction were reported by 539 participants at baseline, the end of intervention, and 4-month follow-up. Pupil- and TA-reported autonomy-support and teaching efficacy were collected alongside interviews with 18 TAs and focus groups with 60 participants. Among intervention boys there were small increases in identified, introjected, and external motivation and no differences in need satisfaction. Among girls, intrinsic and identified motivation and autonomy and relatedness were lower in the intervention group. Qualitative evidence for fidelity was moderate, and boys reported greater need satisfaction than girls. TAs provided greater structure than involvement or autonomy-support and felt least efficacious when facing school-based challenges. The findings highlight the refinements needed to enhance theoretical fidelity and intervention effectiveness for boys and girls.

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Ashley Gibson Bowers, Christina L.L. Martin, John Miller, Brent Wolfe and Nancy Magee Speed

The purpose of the study was to examine female athletes’ perceptions of their body image as a result of comparing themselves to others. Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) was used as the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of body image among intercollegiate female athletes. Using a qualitative analysis, the authors individually interviewed 20 female collegiate athletes attending a Division I university and thematically coded their responses. The findings suggest that coaches and teammates significantly contribute to body image pressures in female athletes, as participants were sensitive to the comments and perceptions of these groups. Finally, athletes perceived that the external population (those outside of coaches and teammates) evaluated athletic talent based on actual body image.

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Amanda J. Visek, Heather Mannix, Avinash Chandran, Sean D. Cleary, Karen A. McDonnell and Loretta DiPietro

integration theory’s FUN MAPS ( Visek et al., 2015 ) offers a unique framework from which to conduct sex comparisons within the context of organized youth sport, and to further compare athletes on other binary categorizations germane to organized sport, such as age and level of competitive play. The Fun

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel

& Dillon, 2012 ; Pan, Tsai, Chu, & Hsieh, 2011 ; Valentini & Rudisill, 2004 ). In this study, we employ tenets from achievement goal theory (AGT) and self-determination theory (SDT) to explore what motivational pathways support social inclusion (SI) and pedagogical inclusion (PI) in PE as perceived by

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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

intention, relying on an extension of the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB; Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001 ) applied to PA. The extension consists of including DNs as an explanatory factor (resulting in MGDB + DNs). MGDB is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985 ). TPB has been one of

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman

The influence of anxiety on motor performance is central to performance psychology (e.g.,  Woodman & Hardy, 2003 ). An extensive body of research devoted to determining the nature of the anxiety–performance relationship has investigated theories such as the conscious processing hypothesis ( Masters