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Genevieve F. Dunton, Michael Cousineau and Kim D. Reynolds

Background:

Policy strategies aimed at modifying aspects of the social, physical, economic, and educational environments have been proposed as potential solutions to the growing problem of physical inactivity. To develop effective physical activity policies in these and other areas, greater understanding of how and why policies successfully impact behavior change is needed.

Methods:

The current paper proposes a conceptual framework explaining how policy strategies map onto health behavior theoretical variables and processes thought to lead to physical activity change. This framework is used to make hypotheses about the potential effectiveness of different policy strategies.

Results:

Health behavior theories suggest that policies providing information may be particularly useful for individuals who are not yet considering or have only recently begun to consider becoming more physically active. Policies that provide opportunities may be less effective for individuals who do not find physical activity to be inherently fun and interesting. Policies that offer incentives or require the behavior may not be particularly useful at promoting long-term changes in physical activity.

Conclusion:

Exploring possible connections between policy strategies and theoretical constructs can help to clarify how each approach might work and for whom it may be the most appropriate to implement.

Open access

Simon J. Sebire, Mark J. Edwards, Kenneth R. Fox, Ben Davies, Kathryn Banfield, Lesley Wood and Russell Jago

The implementation, fidelity, and receipt of a self-determination-theory-based after-school physical activity intervention (Action 3:30) delivered by teaching assistants (TAs) was examined using a mixed-methods process evaluation. Physical activity motivation and need satisfaction were reported by 539 participants at baseline, the end of intervention, and 4-month follow-up. Pupil- and TA-reported autonomy-support and teaching efficacy were collected alongside interviews with 18 TAs and focus groups with 60 participants. Among intervention boys there were small increases in identified, introjected, and external motivation and no differences in need satisfaction. Among girls, intrinsic and identified motivation and autonomy and relatedness were lower in the intervention group. Qualitative evidence for fidelity was moderate, and boys reported greater need satisfaction than girls. TAs provided greater structure than involvement or autonomy-support and felt least efficacious when facing school-based challenges. The findings highlight the refinements needed to enhance theoretical fidelity and intervention effectiveness for boys and girls.

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Jairo H. Migueles, Alex V. Rowlands, Florian Huber, Séverine Sabia and Vincent T. van Hees

one-stop overview of the GGIR package, the papers underpinning the theory of GGIR, and how research contributes to the continued growth of the GGIR package. How Open Source Software Can Contribute to Advances in the Field of Physical Activity Measurement GGIR contributes to scientific discovery by

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Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen and Ørnulf N. Seippel

& Dillon, 2012 ; Pan, Tsai, Chu, & Hsieh, 2011 ; Valentini & Rudisill, 2004 ). In this study, we employ tenets from achievement goal theory (AGT) and self-determination theory (SDT) to explore what motivational pathways support social inclusion (SI) and pedagogical inclusion (PI) in PE as perceived by

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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski and Néstor Duch-Brown

intention, relying on an extension of the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB; Perugini & Bagozzi, 2001 ) applied to PA. The extension consists of including DNs as an explanatory factor (resulting in MGDB + DNs). MGDB is based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, 1985 ). TPB has been one of

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Recep Gorgulu, Andrew Cooke and Tim Woodman

The influence of anxiety on motor performance is central to performance psychology (e.g.,  Woodman & Hardy, 2003 ). An extensive body of research devoted to determining the nature of the anxiety–performance relationship has investigated theories such as the conscious processing hypothesis ( Masters

Open access

Keith R. Lohse

than another (e.g., I study motor behavior more than neural control of movement), but we should all appreciate the balance between different levels of analysis ( Poggio, 2012 ). As our research questions change, so to do our measures, methods, and theories. Neurophysiology is important, but psychology

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Steriani Elavsky, Lenka Knapova, Adam Klocek and David Smahel

information was extracted: study design, country, study length/intervention duration, mean age, age range, number and type of participants, intervention type, mobile component, theory driven concept, available data on primary or secondary outcomes (PA, SB, and sleep behavior), and type of measurement of the

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Carl Foster

days 21 – 24 and training periodization, 25 which are known to augment the training response. 26 , 27 Mujika and Padilla 28 and Hickson et al 29 have documented the effect of taper on the training response, but we have yet to come up with a unified field theory that is of practical benefit to

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Walter Herzog

for approximately 60% of their working range, seemed preposterous. Was this an example of evolution gone wrong? Knowing little about muscles at that time and not having done a single experiment on muscles, my intuition told me that instability and negative stiffness theory was not a good idea, despite