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Trent Stellingwerff, James P. Morton and Louise M. Burke

athlete should be quantified as best as possible against these performance determinants. From this construct, the coach will strategically develop the various macro- (months to years), meso- (weeks to months), and microcycles (days to within days) aspects of training periodization and its specific

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Sigridur L. Gudmundsdottir

were collected during a peak training period before a reduction in training (tapering) before the Icelandic championships started. Ethical approval was granted by the ethical committee of the University of Iceland. This study was conducted according to the guidelines laid down in the Declaration of

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Carl Foster

days 21 – 24 and training periodization, 25 which are known to augment the training response. 26 , 27 Mujika and Padilla 28 and Hickson et al 29 have documented the effect of taper on the training response, but we have yet to come up with a unified field theory that is of practical benefit to

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Sang-Ho Lee, Steven D. Scott, Elizabeth J. Pekas, Jeong-Gi Lee and Song-Young Park

logs were obtained during the training period. To lose weight, caloric restriction and exercise were used. Weight was measured every day before and after training sessions from each subject. The nutrient profile was 60% carbohydrates, 20% fats, and 20% protein. Before intervention of caloric

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

and anaerobic ATP production, there are numerous opportunities for various nutrition interventions to make a significant training and/or race performance impact. Indeed, as an event group, middle-distance athletes might feature the greatest polarization and diversity of training periodization between

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Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

 al., 2016 ). However, these results could be influenced by the more favorable feeding period around the training period for the TRF group. Ramadan IF Ramadan is a holy month during which Muslims refrain from eating and drinking between sunrise and sunset for 30 days. It is the most widely studied form of

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Louise M. Burke, Asker E. Jeukendrup, Andrew M. Jones and Martin Mooses

.L. ( 2014 ). Exercise and sport performance with low doses of caffeine . Sports Medicine, 44 ( Suppl. 2 ), 175 – 184 . doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0257-8 10.1007/s40279-014-0257-8 Stellingwerff , T. ( 2012 ). Case study: Nutrition and training periodization in three elite marathon runners

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randomly assigned a training program consisted of high frequency leg resistance training, periodized to the first two weeks (group 1) or the last two weeks (group 2) of each cycle, or to a control group performing regular training, during four consecutive menstrual/OC cycles. The main analysis was the pre

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Ricardo J.S. Costa, Beat Knechtle, Mark Tarnopolsky and Martin D. Hoffman

need to be prevented or managed. With this in mind, the aims of the current review are to: (a) explore the physiological and nutritional demands of ultramarathon running, (b) provide general guidance on nutritional requirements for training periodization respective to ultramarathon running, and (c

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

production and storage of products is also of concern. Although this may seem a minor inconvenience, and of similarity to food safety issues, the coincidence of problems around a crucial training period or competitive event may significantly interfere with an athlete’s performance goals. It should be noted