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Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson and Catherine Turner

that typically has a lower camera sampling frequency than other computer-based 2D motion analysis. As individuals with ACLR may exhibit more knee valgus 2 and there is limited data regarding the reliability/validity of using MAA to measure knee movement, it is necessary for validation of using a MAA

Open access

Louise M. Burke and Peter Peeling

involvement of these variables is provided in Table  3 , as well as other specific reviews on dietary standardization prior to performance trials ( Jeacocke & Burke, 2010 ), external sources of motivation ( Halperin et al., 2015 ), and the organization of reliable and valid measurements of performance

Open access

Robert W. Cox, Rodrigo E. Martinez, Russell T. Baker and Lindsay Warren

measuring ankle plantar flexion. The purpose of this study was 2-fold: (1) to assess the validity of the Clinometer Smartphone Application™ for use in the ankle (ie, plantar flexion) and (2) to assess the validity of the inclinometer procedures used to measure ankle plantar flexion. Methods A blinded

Free access

Roel De Ridder, Julien Lebleu, Tine Willems, Cedric De Blaiser, Christine Detrembleur and Philip Roosen

needed to obtain the gait parameters. This aspect is really important to facilitate technology adoption. 7 However, before using them for clinical interpretation, we need to define their reliability and validity. The latter can be done by comparing the spatiotemporal parameters of gait obtained from the

Open access

Richard A. Brindle, David Ebaugh and Clare E. Milner

is unclear whether the peak force during a hip abductor eccentric strength test occurs before or after the leg begins to lower. For measures to be useful in clinical decision making, they need to be both reliable and valid. Substantial intrarater reliability of a hip abductor eccentric strength test

Open access

Zhen Zeng, Christoph Centner, Albert Gollhofer and Daniel König

extent of BFR as well as assessing the AOP in BFR research. 17 – 21 However, there is a lack of evidence regarding the accuracy of PO in determining both lower- and upper-limb AOP for BFR protocols. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity between PO for measuring the AOP

Open access

Kathryn Mills, Aula Idris, Thu-An Pham, John Porte, Mark Wiggins and Manolya Kavakli

first be established. The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the validity of a VR game in evaluating the projected frontal plane knee angle when landing from a jump and (2) to assess the reliability of this evaluation over time. Methods A cross-sectional laboratory study was used to determine

Full access

Louise C. Mâsse and Judith E. de Niet


Over the years, self-report measures of physical activity (PA) have been employed in applications for which their use was not supported by the validity evidence.


To address this concern this paper 1) provided an overview of the sources of validity evidence that can be assessed with self-report measures of PA, 2) discussed the validity evidence needed to support the use of self-report in certain applications, and 3) conducted a case review of the 7-day PA Recall (7-d PAR).


This paper discussed 5 sources of validity evidence, those based on: test content; response processes; behavioral stability; relations with other variables; and sensitivity to change. The evidence needed to use self-report measures of PA in epidemiological, surveillance, and intervention studies was presented. These concepts were applied to a case review of the 7-d PAR. The review highlighted the utility of the 7-d PAR to produce valid rankings. Initial support, albeit weaker, for using the 7-d PAR to detect relative change in PA behavior was found.


Overall, self-report measures can validly rank PA behavior but they cannot adequately quantify PA. There is a need to improve the accuracy of self-report measures of PA to provide unbiased estimates of PA.

Free access

Sergio Jiménez-Rubio, Archit Navandar, Jesús Rivilla-García and Victor Paredes-Hernández

) corresponded to very poor relevance and the highest possible rating (n = 5) corresponded to very high relevance. The coefficient of content validation was calculated using Aiken’s V, and its 95% confidence intervals were also determined. 37 A minimum score of 0.75 was needed for an item to be valid. 37 The

Open access

David M. Werner and Joaquin A. Barrios

Context: Core stability is considered critical for the successful execution of rehabilitative and athletic tasks. Although no consensus definition exists, different components related to core stability have been identified. An important component is the domain of motor control. There are few clinical tests assessing the motor control component of core stability (MCCS). Objective: To evaluate the interrater reliability and known-groups validity of a novel test of MCCS, the in-line half-kneeling test. The test is aimed at assessing MCCS by challenging the ability to maintain a static position with minimized contributions from the distal extremities over a minimized base of support. Design: Cross-sectional group comparison study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 75 participants (25 individuals with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, 25 uninjured Division 1 collegiate athletes, and 25 uninjured controls) were recruited from a university community. Intervention: Participants were video recorded while performing the in-line half-kneeling test for 120 seconds bilaterally. Three observers independently viewed each video to determine if individuals broke form during each test using 2 dichotomous criteria. Main Outcome Measures: Cohen’s kappa was used to assess interrater reliability, and chi-square tests of independence were used to compare break rates between groups. Results: Good-to-excellent interrater reliability (.732–.973) was seen between the 3 observers. Chi-square tests of independence revealed different break rates between all 3 groups. Compared to break rate for the reference control group (11/25—44%), those with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction broke at a higher rate (18/25—72%), whereas the uninjured collegiate athletes broke at a lower rate (4/25—16%). Conclusions: The in-line half-kneeling test is a reliable test between raters that can differentiate between groups expected to differ in MCCS.