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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles, and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

/d; identify deficiencies through blood work, consult with a physician and sport nutritionist, and take corrective actions in insufficient/ deficient athletes with changes in lifestyle, food intake, and possibly supplementation; indiscriminate vitamin D supplementation for athletes is not advised; compensatory

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen

bleeding, digestive problems, and/ or increased LDL. Vitamin D: An essential fat-soluble vitamin. Skin exposure to sunlight normally accounts for 90% of the source of vitamin D. Enhanced adaptive response to exercise; decreased stress fractures Data on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar, and Stephane Bermon

determined by microdialysis in humans . The Journal of Physiology, 521 , 299 – 306 . doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.00299.x 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.00299.x Lappe , J. , Cullen , D. , Haynatzki , G. , Recker , R. , Ahlf , R. , & Thompson , K. ( 2008 ). Calcium and vitamin D supplementation

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Heitor O. Santos, Gederson K. Gomes, Brad J. Schoenfeld, and Erick P. de Oliveira

25(OH)D levels. A meta-analysis showed that vitamin D supplementation (300–4,000 IU/day) has a small positive effect on muscle strength (mainly in individuals presenting chronically low vitamin D levels and in older adults), but no effects were shown for muscle mass ( Beaudart et al., 2014 ). Thus

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Yolanda Barrado-Martín, Michelle Heward, Remco Polman, and Samuel R. Nyman

’s autonomy and quality of life ( National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, 2013 ). A variety of interventions (including Vitamin D supplementation, exercise, environmental, and multifactorial interventions) have been attempted to reduce the risk factors for falls among older adults living in the