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Eric S. Rawson, Mary P. Miles and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

may help athletes to train and/or compete more effectively without performance impediments. These supplements include creatine monohydrate, beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB), omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D, probiotics, gelatin, and anti-inflammatory supplements such as curcumin or tart cherry

Open access

Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

Adolescent, female, and masters athletes have unique nutritional requirements as a consequence of undertaking daily training and competition in addition to the specific demands of age- and gender-related physiological changes. Dietary education and recommendations for these special population athletes require a focus on eating for long-term health, with special consideration given to “at-risk” dietary patterns and nutrients (e.g., sustained restricted eating, low calcium, vitamin D and/or iron intakes relative to requirements). Recent research highlighting strategies to address age-related changes in protein metabolism and the development of tools to assist in the management of Relative Energy Deficiency in Sport are of particular relevance to special population athletes. Whenever possible, special population athletes should be encouraged to meet their nutrient needs by the consumption of whole foods rather than supplements. The recommendation of dietary supplements (particularly to young athletes) overemphasizes their ability to manipulate performance in comparison with other training/dietary strategies.

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Ina Garthe and Ronald J. Maughan

, categories include sports foods (gels, bars, drinks, protein powders), vitamins and minerals, herbals and botanicals, and ergogenic supplements (Table  1 ). In addition, there is a category which includes supplements for weight loss, products for increased libido, and there are also gluten-free, lactose

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D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Kathleen Woolf and Louise Burke

protocol. Failing to do so may compromise the effectiveness of the supplementation protocol and could lead to excess vitamin and mineral intakes and/or food-drug interactions. This paper summarizes the comprehensive assessment of an individual athlete’s nutritional status, using the traditional “A

Open access

Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar and Stephane Bermon

skeletal muscle injury are summarized in Table  1 . Table 1 Nutritional Strategies Claimed to Help With Skeletal Muscle Injuries in Athletes Micronutrient Rationale for supplement Suggested dose Key research Vitamin D It is well established that many athletes are vitamin D deficient due to a lack of

Open access

Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener and Lars Engebretsen

Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA), described a dietary supplement as: “. . . a product, other than tobacco, which is used in conjunction with a healthy diet and contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients: a vitamin, mineral, herb or other botanical, an amino acid, a

Open access

Dana M. Lis, Daniel Kings and D. Enette Larson-Meyer

psychosocial anxiety, and compromised energy/nutrient intake ( Hill et al., 2017 ; Staudacher et al., 2017 ). Historically, a GFD has also been associated with suboptimal intake of iron, B vitamins, and protein and higher intake of sugar and fat. With significant improvements in commercially available gluten

Open access

Keith Baar

( Paxton et al., 2012 ). Nutrition Intervention Normal dietary intake for the player was not tracked, nor did the player report changes in dietary intake over the length of the study. One hour before the patellar tendon targeted training program, the athlete consumed 15 g of gelatin with ∼225 mg vitamin C

Open access

International Olympic Committee Expert Group on Dietary Supplements in Athletes

Dietary supplements encompass a wide range of products, including essential nutrients (vitamins, minerals, proteins, amino acids, etc.), herbals and botanicals, and specific products with potential for maintenance of health and optimisation of performance. The use of dietary supplements is

Open access

Lindy M. Castell, David C. Nieman, Stéphane Bermon and Peter Peeling

; micronutrients (e.g., iron, zinc, and magnesium) are important for competent immune function, as are vitamins A and D. Some nutrients must be provided in the diet, as they cannot be synthesized in mammalian cells ( Calder, 2013 ). Improved techniques such as metabolomics, proteomics, and lipidomics have revealed