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Bettina Callary, Penny Werthner and Pierre Trudel

Using Jarvis’ (2006) psychosocial perspective of human learning, we explore how the career choices and the subsequent coaching approaches of five Canadian women coaches have been influenced by their primary and secondary socialization. A content analysis was performed to identify how coaches learned in their primary socialization with their family, and in their secondary socialization at school and in their sport experiences. The findings indicate that the learning situations in their primary and secondary socialization influence the coaches’ career choices and their subsequent coaching approaches. These findings have implications for coaching education, enabling course developers and facilitators to understand (a) the importance of creating environments where coaches are able to critically reflect, and (b) how coaching approaches can be influenced by early life experiences.

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Beth G. Clarkson, Elwyn Cox and Richard C. Thelwell

Background In stark contrast to a significant growth in women’s participation in football (soccer) over the past 20 years, such growth is not reflected in the number of women coaches at all levels of expertise ( Williams, 2013 ). Recent reports indicate that 80% of coaching positions in European

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Nicole M. LaVoi, Jennifer E. McGarry and Leslee A. Fisher

uncover and reveal that structural-level systemic bias is deeply embedded within the culture of sport—the data tell the story. With more data, the story plotline becomes sharply focused and illuminates the many obstacles women coaches face and how challenging it is to change the gendered system. As Pat

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Don Vinson, Polly Christian, Vanessa Jones, Craig Williams and Derek M. Peters

Inclusive and equitable processes are important to the development of sports coaching. The aim of this study was to explore how well UK coach education meets the needs of women sports coaches to make recommendations to further enhance the engagement of, and support for, aspiring and existing women coaches. The national governing bodies (NGBs) of four sports (Cycling, Equestrian, Gymnastics and Rowing) volunteered to participate and semistructured interviews using the tenants of Appreciative Inquiry (AI) within a Self Determination Theory (SDT) framework were undertaken with 23 coaches, eight coach educators and five NGB officers. The data themed into an analytic structure derived from SDT comprising ‘Autonomy: Freedom to coach’, ‘Coaching competence’, and ‘Relatedness and belonging’. The coaches perceived potential benefit from enhanced relatedness and belonging within their sport with the findings suggesting that NGBs should embrace coach-led decision making in terms of the developmental topics which are important and should adopt the development of competence, rather than assessing technical understanding, as the foundational principle of more inclusive coach education. Future research should investigate the impact of the inclusive practices which are recommended within this investigation such as the softening of the technocratic focus of formal coach education.

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Leslee A. Fisher

declined or stalled, despite increasing female sport participation” (para. 1). Further, she soberly reminds us that there is almost a total absence of women coaching male athletes as well as the fact that women who coach women are now in the minority. In addition, even when female coaches are successful at