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Melanna F. Cox, Greg J. Petrucci Jr., Robert T. Marcotte, Brittany R. Masteller, John Staudenmayer, Patty S. Freedson, and John R. Sirard

for video coders. Based on these initial agreement analyses and identification of problematic issues, the DO system was refined (Figure  1 , Phase II). In phase III, the final agreement analyses were conducted with data from the MOCA Study’s young adult subsample (Figure  1 , Phase III). Figure 1

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René van Bavel, Gabriele Esposito, Tom Baranowski, and Néstor Duch-Brown

offered many opportunities to be physically active, compared with the European Union average of 68% ( European Commission, 2006 ). The study focused on young adults because they are particularly vulnerable to weight gain ( Huang et al., 2003 ) and can be difficult to reach through public health campaigns

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Daniel H. Aslan, Joshua M. Collette, and Justus D. Ortega

economy) in older adults ( Mian, Thom, Ardigò, Narici, & Minetti, 2006 ). Healthy older adults have been shown to have a 15–20% greater metabolic cost during walking, across a range of speeds in comparison with young adults ( Martin, Rothstein, & Larish, 1992 ). Approximately 20% of U.S. citizens will be

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Damien Moore, Tania Pizzari, Jodie McClelland, and Adam I. Semciw

abduction and the resisted hip extension–abduction exercise with large effect sizes generated (Figure  3B ). Discussion This study investigated activity levels of anterior, middle, and posterior segments of the GMed during common rehabilitation exercises in healthy young adults. These results indicate that

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Matthew D. Watson, George J. Davies, and Bryan L. Riemann

outcomes. In addition, synthesis of previous SSASP reports examining healthy young adults has noted performance favoring the dominant limb between 3% and 13%. 1 , 2 , 4 , 5 Understanding limb symmetry in healthy populations is crucial information for clinical interpretation when tracking rehabilitation

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Marie H. Murphy, Angela Carlin, Catherine Woods, Alan Nevill, Ciaran MacDonncha, Kyle Ferguson, and Niamh Murphy

one-third (31.1%) of adults are physically inactive. 7 The transition from adolescence to adulthood, 8 and in particular the transition to college/university provides an opportunity for influencing adult behavior. 9 Young adults are exposed to a number of academic, physical, emotional, and social

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Mohammad Reza Pourahmadi, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Javad Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Ali Sanjari, Rasool Bagheri, and Morteza Taghipour

published literature to assess the kinematics of the spine during STS task in patients with LBP and healthy young adult participants using motion analysis systems (electromagnetic and marker based). It is hoped that this systematic review will be helpful in further understanding the kinematics of the spine

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Keishi Soga, Keita Kamijo, and Hiroaki Masaki

We investigated how aerobic exercise during encoding affects hippocampus-dependent memory through a source memory task that assessed hippocampus-independent familiarity and hippocampus-dependent recollection processes. Using a within-participants design, young adult participants performed a memory-encoding task while performing a cycling exercise or being seated. The subsequent retrieval phase was conducted while sitting on a chair. We assessed behavioral and event-related brain potential measures of familiarity and recollection processes during the retrieval phase. Results indicated that source accuracy was lower for encoding with exercise than for encoding in the resting condition. Event-related brain potential measures indicated that the parietal old/new effect, which has been linked to recollection processing, was observed in the exercise condition, whereas it was absent in the rest condition, which is indicative of exercise-induced hippocampal activation. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise during encoding impairs hippocampus-dependent memory, which may be attributed to inefficient source encoding during aerobic exercise.

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Tatiana Plekhanova, Alex V. Rowlands, Tom Yates, Andrew Hall, Emer M. Brady, Melanie Davies, Kamlesh Khunti, and Charlotte L. Edwardson

Introduction: This study examined the equivalency of sleep estimates from Axivity, GENEActiv, and ActiGraph accelerometers worn on the nondominant and dominant wrists and with and without using a sleep log to guide the algorithm. Methods: 47 young adults wore an Axivity, GENEActiv, and ActiGraph accelerometer continuously on both wrists for 4–7 days. Sleep time, sleep window, sleep efficiency, sleep onset, and wake time were produced using the open-source software (GGIR). For each outcome, agreement between accelerometer brands, dominant and nondominant wrists, and with and without use of a sleep log, was examined using pairwise 95% equivalence tests (±10% equivalence zone) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), with 95% confidence intervals and limits of agreement. Results: All sleep outcomes were within a 10% equivalence zone irrespective of brand, wrist, or use of a sleep log. ICCs were poor to good for sleep time (ICCs ≥ .66) and sleep window (ICCs ≥ .56). Most ICCs were good to excellent for sleep efficiency (ICCs ≥ .73), sleep onset (ICCs ≥ .88), and wake time (ICCs ≥ .87). There were low levels of mean bias; however, there were wide 95% limits of agreement for sleep time, sleep window, sleep onset, and wake time outcomes. Sleep time (up to 25 min) and sleep window (up to 29 min) outcomes were higher when use of the sleep log was not used. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that sleep outcomes from the Axivity, GENEActiv, and ActiGraph, when analyzed identically, are comparable across studies with different accelerometer brands and wear protocols at a group level. However, caution is advised when comparing studies that differ on sleep log availability.

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Tomoko Aoki and Koji Kadota

tapping frequency ( Hermsdörfer, Marquardt, Wack, & Mai, 1999 ), also decline with age. Several static motor function studies on individual fingers have reported that older adults produce a lower maximum pinch force between the thumb and each of the four fingers compared with young adults ( Ranganathan