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Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) is a common sports-related injury commonly followed by knee instability. 1 . Previous studies have shown that mechanical and functional instability of the knee, impaired muscle recruitment, loss of force, muscle atrophy, and impaired neuromuscular

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Rafael Squillantini, Brielle Ringle and Julie Cavallario

Clinical Scenario Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) sprains are one of the most common lower extremity injuries within physically active individuals. In the United States alone, approximately 250,000 ACL sprains occur annually. 1 ACL sprains are one of the most costly lower extremity injuries, due

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Lauren Anne Lipker, Caitlyn Rae Persinger, Bradley Steven Michalko and Christopher J. Durall

Clinical Scenario Quadriceps atrophy and weakness are common after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). 1 , 2 Blood flow restriction (BFR) therapy, alone or in combination with exercise, has shown some promise in promoting muscular hypertrophy. 1 – 3 This review was conducted to

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Rosa M. Rodriguez, Ashley Marroquin and Nicole Cosby

knee complaints are related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. 2 , 3 The ACL is commonly injured in contact sports by a noncontact action, such as planting, cutting, landing on a hyperextended knee, or pivoting and sudden deceleration. 4 Typically, athletes report feeling immediate pain

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Kai-Yu Ho, Brenda Benson Deaver, Tyrel Nelson and Catherine Turner

Single-leg landing, single-leg hopping, and cutting tests have been widely used in evaluating knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). 1 , 2 It has also been found that females with ACLR showed greater knee valgus, 2 thereby predisposing them to increased risk of ACL

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Justin L. Rush, Lindsey K. Lepley, Steven Davi and Adam S. Lepley

Approximately 80,000 to 250,000 anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries occur annually in the United States. 1 Unfortunately, a portion of these patients can experience poor long-term outcomes following ACL reconstruction (ACLR) which is evident by reinjury rates that exceed 20%, 2 and

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Megan P. Brady and Windee Weiss

Clinical Scenario A common injury among elite, recreational, and youth athletes is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear. 1 Approximately 200,000 ACL injuries occur every year. 2 The gold standard in ACL injury evaluation is diagnostic arthroscopy 3 , 4 ; however, the diagnostic accuracy of

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Nathaniel A. Bates, Nathan D. Schilaty, Ryo Ueno and Timothy E. Hewett

Clinically, anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are hypothesized to occur within 50 milliseconds of initial contact with the ground during landing tasks. 1 This rapid loading of the ACL is corroborated by in vitro simulation, which has shown that ACL strain immediately increases and peaks

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David M. Werner and Joaquin A. Barrios

injury 4 MCL∶2 PCL Meniscus tear 19 Graft type (HS∶PT∶Allo) 9∶12∶4 Abbreviations: ACLR, Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction; Allo, allograft; BMI, body mass index; HS, hamstrings; MCL, medial collateral ligament; NCAA, National Collegiate Athletic Association; PCL, posterior cruciate ligament; PT

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Erica M. Willadsen, Andrea B. Zahn and Chris J. Durall

Clinical Scenario The high prevalence of noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in adolescent female athletes is thought to originate from hormonal, neuromuscular, and structural differences between sexes. 1 Although hormonal and structural factors are nonmodifiable, neuromuscular