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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, and Jamie Whitfield

effective for them. Sodium Bicarbonate—Extracellular Buffering Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 − ) is a key extracellular buffer, which can improve performance by increasing extracellular bicarbonate (concentrations and blood pH. In doing so, the efflux of lactate and H + cations out of skeletal muscle is

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Peter Peeling, Martyn J. Binnie, Paul S.R. Goods, Marc Sim, and Louise M. Burke

-015-0087-6 Lancha Junior , A.H. , de Painelli , V.S. , Saunders , B. , & Artioli , G.G. ( 2015 ). Nutritional strategies to modulate intracellular and extracellular buffering capacity during high-intensity exercise . Sports Medicine, 45 ( Suppl. 1 ), 71 – 81 . doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0397-5 10.1007/s

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen

et al., 2016 ). Possible negative side effects include skin rashes and/or transient paresthesia. Sodium Bicarbonate Overview Sodium bicarbonate augments extracellular buffering capacity, having potential beneficial effects on sustained high-intensity exercise performance. Mechanism Acts as an

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Peter Peeling, Linda M. Castell, Wim Derave, Olivier de Hon, and Louise M. Burke

. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 12 , 25 . doi:10.1186/s12970-015-0087-6 10.1186/s12970-015-0087-6 Lancha Junior , A.H. , de Salles Painelli , V. , Saunders , B. , & Artioli , G.G. ( 2015 ). Nutritional strategies to modulate intracellular and extracellular buffering

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Jason C. Siegler, Amelia J. Carr, William T. Jardine, Lilia Convit, Rebecca Cross, Dale Chapman, Louise M. Burke, and Megan Ross

influencing the individual responses to extracellular buffering agents . Frontiers in Nutrition, 5, 35 . 10.3389/fnut.2018.00035 Kowalchuk , J.M. , Maltais , S.A. , Yamaji , K. , & Hughson , R.L. ( 1989 ). The effect of citrate loading on exercise

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Tue A.H. Lassen, Lars Lindstrøm, Simon Lønbro, and Klavs Madsen

 al., 2004 ) and in line with the suggested effect for SBS in improving extracellular buffering and subsequently increasing intramuscular pH during the exercise period ( Hargreaves & Spriet, 2020 ). In order to investigate the effect of SBS on performance, one needs to consider the large individual variation