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Joanne G. Mirtschin, Sara F. Forbes, Louise E. Cato, Ida A. Heikura, Nicki Strobel, Rebecca Hall and Louise M. Burke

The authors describe the implementation of a 3-week dietary intervention in elite race walkers at the Australian Institute of Sport, with a focus on the resources and strategies needed to accomplish a complex study of this scale. Interventions involved: traditional guidelines of high carbohydrate (CHO) availability for all training sessions; a periodized CHO diet which integrated sessions with low and high CHO availability within the same total CHO intake; and a ketogenic low-CHO high-fat diet. Seven-day menus and recipes were constructed for a communal eating setting to meet nutritional goals as well as individualized food preferences and special needs. Menus also included nutrition support before, during, and after exercise. Daily monitoring, via observation and food checklists, showed that energy and macronutrient targets were achieved. Diets were matched for energy (∼14.8 MJ/d) and protein (∼2.1 g·kg−1·day−1) and achieved desired differences for fat and CHO, with high CHO availability and periodized CHO availability: CHO = 8.5 g·kg−1·day−1, 60% energy, fat = 20% of energy and low-CHO high-fat diet: 0.5 g·kg−1·day−1 CHO, fat = 78% energy.  There were no differences in micronutrient intake or density between the high CHO availability and periodized CHO availability diets; however, the micronutrient density of the low-CHO high-fat diet was significantly lower. Daily food costs per athlete were similar for each diet (∼AU$ 27 ± 10). Successful implementation and monitoring of dietary interventions in sports nutrition research of the scale of the present study require meticulous planning and the expertise of chefs and sports dietitians. Different approaches to sports nutrition support raise practical challenges around cost, micronutrient density, accommodation of special needs, and sustainability.

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Shona L. Halson, Louise M. Burke and Jeni Pearce

/vegetarian’; see Lis et al., 2018 ), portable/nonperishable snacks, and specialized sports foods/drinks. Management solutions include pretrip organization of required needs with the destination caterers or appropriate suppliers or the freighting/self-carriage of key foods from home within logistical

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Tim J. Gabbett and Rod Whiteley

The authors have observed that in professional sporting organizations the staff responsible for physical preparation and medical care typically practice in relative isolation and display tension as regards their attitudes toward training-load prescription (much more and much less training, respectively). Recent evidence shows that relatively high chronic training loads, when they are appropriately reached, are associated with reduced injury risk and better performance. Understanding this link between performance and training loads removes this tension but requires a better understanding of the relationship between the acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) and its association with performance and injury. However, there remain many questions in the area of ACWR, and we are likely at an early stage of our understanding of these parameters and their interrelationships. This opinion paper explores these themes and makes recommendations for improving performance through better synergies in support-staff approaches. Furthermore, aspects of the ACWR that remain to be clarified—the role of shared decision making, risk:benefit estimation, and clearer accountability—are discussed.

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sport, and academia. In reality, the determinants of a successful career in our modern world are not very far from the theory of evolution. While the “survival of the fittest” analogy may be a bit extreme, the ability to adjust an organization’s internal systems to conform to other external

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Shona L. Halson, Alan G. Hahn and Aaron J. Coutts

ensure that all stakeholders have provided permission for use of data for public release and/or research purposes. Accordingly, it is essential that athletes, coaches, and stakeholder organizations provide informed consent and that appropriate ethical approval is sought before planning to publish these

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Thomas Haugen

the demands of selected Olympic sports; and test the training models derived by the best practitioners and reveal the underlying mechanisms. Several doctoral theses have followed this structure to merge science and best practice, for example, “Endurance Training Organization in Elite Endurance

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Sergei Iljukov, Jukka-Pekka Kauppi, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Juha E. Peltonen and Yorck O. Schumacher

number of countries, was supported by state-run organizations. 2 , 3 There have been indications that in some countries such structures have continued to persist, which has translated to a much higher prevalence of doping compared with other nations. 4 During the history of modern sports, different

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Ben Desbrow, Nicholas A. Burd, Mark Tarnopolsky, Daniel R. Moore and Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale

growing tissues and the energy expended to synthesize those tissues ( Torun, 2005 ). The energy deposited in growing tissues is small and has been commonly estimated as 8.6 kJ/g of daily weight gain (e.g., for a 15-year-old male gaining 6 kg/year = ∼140 kJ/day; World Health Organization, 1983 ). The

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Louise M. Burke, Linda M. Castell, Douglas J. Casa, Graeme L. Close, Ricardo J. S. Costa, Ben Desbrow, Shona L. Halson, Dana M. Lis, Anna K. Melin, Peter Peeling, Philo U. Saunders, Gary J. Slater, Jennifer Sygo, Oliver C. Witard, Stéphane Bermon and Trent Stellingwerff

-Doping Agency’s List, which are sometimes present as contaminants or undeclared ingredients. However, major organizations and expert bodies now recognize that a pragmatic approach to supplements and sports foods is needed in the face of the evidence that some products (previously mentioned) can usefully

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Douglas J. Casa, Samuel N. Cheuvront, Stuart D. Galloway and Susan M. Shirreffs

performance and health, and by governing organizations when considering the rules and regulations of the sport or the timing of events. Everyday Hydration Assessment Optimal hydration reflects a physical state of having normal body water and electrolytes, and it is an assumed starting point for most of the