Kerry S. Courneya and Edward McAuley
David L. Rudolph and Edward McAuley
Kerry S. Couraeya and Edward McAuley
The purpose of this paper was to present two issues that might help to explain the modest and highly variable relationship between intention and physical activity. Specifically, the conceptual distinction between intention and expectation (Warshaw & Davis, 1985) and the failure to obtain what might be referred to as scale correspondence were addressed. It was argued that reasonable conceptual and empirical evidence exists to warrant the distinction between intention and expectation in the physical activity domain and research should try to shed further light on this distinction. Arguments were also made that scale correspondence is a distinct form of correspondence that has been neglected and often violated in the physical activity domain. Four methods of obtaining scale correspondence were then presented as a framework for future empirical research to examine the issue.
Edward McAuley and John B. Gross
One of the more problematic methodological issues in attributional research has been the accurate classification, by researchers, of causal attributions made by respondents along causal dimensions. Closed-ended and open-ended approaches have been logical but limiting solutions to assessing attributions. Russell (1982) has the Causal Dimension Scale, a measure that allows the respondent to record a causal statement and indicate how he or she perceives that causal attribution in terms of causal dimensions. The present study examined the effects of winning and losing at table-tennis upon causal attributions using the Causal Dimension Scale. Reliability of the measure was assessed in a sport setting and the relationship between respondents' perceptions of attributions in terms of causal dimensions and judges' perception of the same were examined. The Causal Dimension Scale was found to be a reliable measure of how individuals perceive attributions in terms of causal dimensions. Winners' attributions were more internal, stable, and controllable than those of losers but attributions were of an internal, unstable, and controllable nature for both winners and losers.
Edward McAuley and Terry E. Duncan
Research suggests that attributional search is a consequence of disconfirming outcomes and that causal dimensions influence affective reactions to achievement outcomes. The present study manipulated future expectancies for performance and actual outcome in a competitive motor task. Following competitive outcome, causal attributions for and affective reactions to the outcome were assessed. Discriminant analysis indicated that winners experienced significantly more positive affect than did losers, who reported more intense negative affects. Regression analyses examined the relationship between causal dimensions and affective reactions. The locus of causality and stability dimensions significantly influenced a number of negative affects in losers, whereas all three dimensions in combination significantly influenced confidence in winners. The findings are discussed in relation to previous attribution-affect research in achievement settings and the role of disconfirm-ing experiences in the attribution process.
Edward McAuley and Terry E. Duncan
This investigation examined the roles of intuitive (subjective performance perceptions) and reflective (causal attributions) appraisals in the generation of affective reactions to gymnastic performance. Both intuitive and cognitive appraisal were significant predictors of general affect, whereas self-related affects were predominantly influenced by intuitive appraisal and other-related affect by causal dimensions. The stability dimension evidenced the strongest relationship with both general and other-related affective reactions. Commonality analyses determined both types of appraisal to account for up to 14.7% of the cojoint variance in emotional reactions, suggesting that intuitive appraisal may well be perceived as causal attributions under certain circumstances. The findings are discussed in terms of the conditions under which attributions augment the emotion process and the importance of assessing perceptions of performance.
J. Ted Miller and Edward McAuley
Though improved performance as a result of goal setting has been reported in organizational psychology studies, little research in sport settings has demonstrated these effects. This study was designed to examine the effects of a goalsetting training program on basketball free-throw performance, perceptions of success, and self-efficacy. Eighteen undergraduate students were matched by free-throw shooting ability, then randomly assigned to either goal-training (GT) or no-goal-training (NT) groups for a period of 5 weeks. Although the GT group reported significantly higher perceptions of success and self-efficacy than did the NT group, no significant differences between groups were revealed for free-throw accuracy. Correlational data suggested a stronger relationship between self-efficacy and free-throw performance for the GT group than for the NT group. Discussed are factors that contribute to the discrepancies between results found in sport related investigations of goal setting and those obtained from studies conducted in business and laboratory environments.
Liang Hu, Edward McAuley, and Steriani Elavsky
This study was designed to address whether the Perceived Physical Ability (PPA) subscale of the Physical Self-Efficacy Scale (PSES; Ryckman, Robbins, Thornton, & Cantrell, 1982) measures self-efficacy or self-esteem. Secondary analyses of four previously reported data sets were conducted to examine the extent to which the PPA overlaps with multidimensional self-esteem measures. Once the factor structure of the PPA was confirmed, multitrait-multimethod analyses were employed to establish convergent and discriminant validity of the PPA and task-specific self-efficacy measures with self-esteem measures. The results support the position that the PPA may be more reflective of esteem than efficacy. Additionally, task-specific self-efficacy measures demonstrated stronger associations with behavioral outcomes than did the PPA. It is recommended that if the PPA is to be used for research purposes, it may have greater utility as a measure of physical self-esteem rather than self-efficacy.
Edward McAuley, Dan Russell, and John B. Gross
Previous research in academic achievement settings has indicated that causal attributions for success and failure outcomes are important determinants of affective reactions to those outcomes. This study examined the relationships between the dimensions underlying causal attributions (termed causal dimensions) and affective reactions to performance outcomes in table tennis. Attribution processes were found to be important determinants of affective reactions, particularly for winners. In contrast to previous findings, the locus of causality dimension was not found to be an important determinant of affect. Instead, the controllability dimension appeared to be the most influential causal dimension. The implications of these findings for research on attribution-affect relationships are discussed.
Arthur F. Kramer, Sowon Hahn, and Edward McAuley
The article provides a brief review of the literature on the relationship between aerobic Fitness and neurocognitive function, particularly as it relates to older adults. Cross-sectional studies provide strong support for the beneficial influence of fitness on neurocognitive function. The longitudinal or interventional literature, however, provides more equivocal support for this relationship. In discussing the literature, the authors introduce a new hypothesis, the executive control/fitness hypothesis, which suggests that selective neurocognitive benefits will be observed with improvements in aerobic fitness; that is, executive control processes that include planning, scheduling, task coordination, inhibition, and working memory will benefit from enhanced fitness. Preliminary evidence for this hypothesis is discussed.