Pamela Hodges Kulinna
Edited by Ping Xiang
Ron E. McBride and Ping Xiang
Three hundred and sixty-one students participating in university physical activity classes completed questionnaires assessing perceived health and self-regulated learning. In addition, 20 students (11 men; 9 women) were interviewed about their reasons for enrolling, participation and goals in the class. Results indicated the students endorsed intrinsic regulation, were autonomous, and the males scored significantly higher on intrinsic regulation and perceived health. Of four regulators, intrinsic regulation predicted student perceived health. The social nature of regulation also cannot be overlooked in providing practicable opportunities and relationships that influence learning in university physical activity classes.
Edited by Ping Xiang and Pamela Hodges Kulinna
George B. Cunningham and Ping Xiang
Guided by achievement goal theory, the current study examined whether perceived motivational climate mediated the relationship between achievement goals and satisfaction with physical activity among college students, as well as whether this mediation differed by sex. Participants (N = 304) completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals, perceived motivational climate, and satisfaction with physical activity. Perceptions of a mastery-focused climate were found to be a mediator of the relationship between mastery goals and satisfaction. The mediating role of perceived motivational climate did not differ based on the sex of the student. Collectively, results of this study support the view that mastery goals and perceived mastery climate are motivationally beneficial to students in the physical activity domain.
Ping Xiang, April Bruene, and Ang Chen
In this study we examined the interrelationship among extrinsic rewards and achievement goals (including a work-avoidance goal), competence beliefs, and task values associated with health-enhancing running tasks over a school year. A group of elementary school students (n = 119) from a program that promoted running for running’s sake and another (n = 88) from a program that promoted running through games provided pre- and post-year data on students’ achievement goals, competence beliefs, task values, achievement in running tests, and future intention to continue running as a health-enhancing activity. Results showed that students in the running-for-games program demonstrated significant growth in task-involved achievement goals. The regression analyses showed that extrinsic-reward and selected intrinsic-motivation constructs played a small role in predicting running-test scores. Interest, however, emerged as the most important intrinsic-motivation construct for predicting future motivation for running. Interest seemed to override the effects not only of extrinsic reward but also of other intrinsic motivation sources. This finding suggests that interest-based motivation sources might have a strong and prolonged effect on learner motivation.
Ping Xiang, Amelia Lee, and Lynn Williamson
Using achievement goal theory as a theoretical framework, this study examined how children and adolescents conceptualized their own ability in physical education. Specifically, children and adolescents were asked to rate their own ability in physical education and to explain the basis for their rating. The research also aimed to identify children and adolescents who attained the differentiated conception of ability but believed in the efficacy of effort. Students (N = 120) in 4th, 8th, and 11th grades were interviewed and completed a questionnaire. Results indicated that the criteria the children and adolescents used forjudging their own ability differed by grade. Children and adolescents at all grade levels tended to assess their own ability in terms of social comparison. Some adolescents with the differentiated conception of ability maintained a belief in the effectiveness of effort.
Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, and Ron McBride
This study used a trichotomous achievement goal model to explore and describe what actually happened in terms of students’ achievement goals and disruptive behaviors in an after-school physical activity program. Participants included 158 students in grades 3–6. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and disruptive behaviors. Nine of the participants were also selected and observed for disruptive behaviors. Students reported higher scores on the mastery goal than they did on the performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals. The mastery goal was negatively related to students’ self-reported low engagement, whereas the performance-approach and performance-avoidance goals were positively related to students’ self-reported disruptive behaviors. Overall, findings of the study provide empirical support for the trichotomous achievement goal model as a viable theoretical framework in the study of students’ disruptive behaviors in after-school physical activity settings.
Xiaoxia Su, Ron E. McBride, and Ping Xiang
The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students’ 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students’ scores were fully invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Multigroup SEM analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals positively predicted intrinsic regulation and identified regulation. It also revealed that performance-approach goal was a stronger predictor of external regulation among female students than among male students. Collectively, these results provide evidence that researchers can make valid inferences about differences in achievement goal and self-regulation scores across male and female students. This study also supports the view that mastery-approach goals are motivationally beneficial, especially among female students, in college physical activity class settings.