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Jianmin Guan, Ron E. McBride, and Ping Xiang

Two types of social goals associated with students’ academic performance have received attention from researchers. One is the social responsibility goal, and the other is the social relationship goal. While several scales have been validated for measuring social relationship and social responsibility goals in academic settings, few studies have applied these social goal scales to high school students in physical education settings. The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability, validity, and generalizability of the scores produced by the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE) in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southern United States. Reliability analyses, principal components factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and multistep invariance analysis across two school samples revealed that the SGS-PE produced reliable and valid scores when used to assess students’ social goal levels in high school physical education settings.

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Xiaoxia Su, Ron E. McBride, and Ping Xiang

The current study examined the measurement invariance across 361 male and female college students’ 2 × 2 achievement goal orientation and motivational regulations. Participants completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goals and motivational regulations. Multigroup CFA analyses showed that male and female students’ scores were fully invariant at the configural, metric, and scalar levels. Multigroup SEM analyses revealed that mastery-approach goals positively predicted intrinsic regulation and identified regulation. It also revealed that performance-approach goal was a stronger predictor of external regulation among female students than among male students. Collectively, these results provide evidence that researchers can make valid inferences about differences in achievement goal and self-regulation scores across male and female students. This study also supports the view that mastery-approach goals are motivationally beneficial, especially among female students, in college physical activity class settings.

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Alex Garn, Ping Xiang, and Haichun Sun

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Ping Xiang, April Bruene, and Ang Chen

In this study we examined the interrelationship among extrinsic rewards and achievement goals (including a work-avoidance goal), competence beliefs, and task values associated with health-enhancing running tasks over a school year. A group of elementary school students (n = 119) from a program that promoted running for running’s sake and another (n = 88) from a program that promoted running through games provided pre- and post-year data on students’ achievement goals, competence beliefs, task values, achievement in running tests, and future intention to continue running as a health-enhancing activity. Results showed that students in the running-for-games program demonstrated significant growth in task-involved achievement goals. The regression analyses showed that extrinsic-reward and selected intrinsic-motivation constructs played a small role in predicting running-test scores. Interest, however, emerged as the most important intrinsic-motivation construct for predicting future motivation for running. Interest seemed to override the effects not only of extrinsic reward but also of other intrinsic motivation sources. This finding suggests that interest-based motivation sources might have a strong and prolonged effect on learner motivation.

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Wang Jiahong, Ping Xiang, Zhang Dazhi, Weidong Liu, and Xiaofeng Gao

Physical education (PE) undergraduate programs in higher education in China have evolved over the last 100 years. As a result, a comprehensive system of physical education undergraduate majors in higher education has been established in today’s colleges/universities in China. The large number of students who have completed a physical education undergraduate major have greatly contributed to the development of physical education and sports in China. In this article, we reviewed the evolution of physical education undergraduate majors in higher education in China according to five historical eras: (a) the early period of New China, (b) the Cultural Revolution period, (c) the early period of reform and opening up, (d) the period of socialist market economy exploration, and (e) the 21st century era. We also systematically examine the structures, goals, and courses of the physical education undergraduate majors in higher education in China. Finally, we provide in-depth analysis of the development of the physical education undergraduate majors through the examination of their guiding principles, goals, and curriculum design, which might serve as a reference for further enhancing the reform of the curricular design of the physical education undergraduate majors in higher education during the current era.

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Bulent Agbuga, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride, and Xiaoxia Su

Purpose:

Framed within self-determination theory, this study examined relationships among perceived instructional choices (cognitive, organizational, and procedural), autonomy need satisfaction, and engagement (behavioral, cognitive, and emotional) among Turkish students in middle school physical education.

Methods:

Participants consisted of 246 (124 boys, 122 girls) middle school students enrolled in physical education classes at four public schools in the west Turkey. Questionnaires were used to collect the data.

Results:

Perceived cognitive, organizational and procedural choices were found all important to students’ autonomy need satisfaction and/or engagement. Autonomy need satisfaction fully or partially mediated the relationships between perceived instructional choices and engagement.

Discussion/Conclusion:

The study provides empirical data that instructional choices supported student autonomy need satisfaction, and were related to student engagement in middle school physical education.

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Jianmin Guan, Ping Xiang, Ron McBride, and April Bruene

This study examined the relationship between achievement goals and social goals and explored how students’ achievement goals and social goals might affect their reported persistence and effort expended toward physical education in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southwest U.S. Multiple regression analysis revealed that social responsibility goals represented the greatest contributor to students’ expenditure of persistence and effort toward physical education. This was followed by mastery-approach goals, mastery-avoidance goals, and performance-approach goals. In addition, girls reported significantly higher values on both social-relationship goals and responsibility goals than did boys. Findings revealed that students had multiple goals for wanting to succeed in physical education; using both achievement goals and social goals when studying student motivation and achievement in high school physical education settings is recommend.

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Jiling Liu, Ping Xiang, Jihye Lee, and Weidong Li

The goal of physical education is to instill physical literacy within students. As an important motivation framework, achievement goal theory has been widely used to understand and explain students’ cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. In this paper, we reviewed studies examining achievement goals and outcomes in K-12 physical education settings. First, we provide a brief review of the historical development of the achievement goal theoretical models (the dichotomous model, the trichotomous model, the 2 × 2 model, and the 3 × 2 model). Then, we synthesize consequences, antecedents, and interactive factors of each achievement goal construct as well as the influences of gender, age, and culture on students’ achievement goals. Finally, we discuss implications for practice and future research. We hope our review can inform physical educators and researchers and assist the application of achievement goal theory into practice.

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Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride, April Bruene, and Yuanlong Liu

This study examined achievement goal orientation patterns and their impact on student motivation in physical education running programs. Participants included 533 fifth graders. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, expectancy beliefs, task values, and intentions for future participation in running. They also completed a timed, 1-mile run. Data revealed 4 goal orientation patterns: low task/low ego, low task/high ego, high task/low ego, and high task/high ego. Students in the high-task/low-ego and high-task/high-ego groups demonstrated higher levels of motivation in running than those in the low-task/low-ego and low-task/high-ego groups.

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Jeffrey Liew, Ping Xiang, Audrea Y. Johnson, and Oi-Man Kwok

Background:

Schools often include running in their physical education and health curriculum to increase physical activity and reduce childhood overweight. But having students run around may not be enough to sustain physical activity habits if motivational factors are not well understood. This study examined effortful persistence as a predictor of running.

Methods:

Participants were 246 5th graders, and data on their demographic information, body mass index (BMI), effortful persistence, and time to complete a 1-mile run were collected across 4 years.

Results:

Between 5th to 8th grades, effortful persistence predicted time to complete a 1-mile run even when BMI was taken into account at every grade except for 7th grade. Rank-order stability was found in major variables across-time, but no across-time prediction was found for effortful persistence on a 1-mile run.

Conclusions:

Lack of longitudinal predictions bodes well for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity, because children or youth with high BMIs or low effortful persistence are not destined for future underachievement on physically challenging activities. Given the stability of variables, interventions that target fostering self-regulatory efficacy or effortful persistence may be particularly important for getting children on trajectories toward healthy and sustained levels of physical activity.