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Laura Q. Rogers, Kerry S. Courneya, Steven Verhulst, Stephen J. Markwell, and Edward McAuley

Objective:

Our aim was to assess differences in exercise counseling preferences, program preferences, and telephone/Internet access among breast cancer survivors based on exercise behavior and demographic, medical, social cognitive, and environmental factors.

Methods:

A self-administered survey was returned by 192 breast cancer survivors.

Results:

Participants were Caucasian (98%), and the mean age was 64 ± 11.5 years. Participants preferring an exercise specialist were more likely to report current treatment, higher self-efficacy, greater perceived barriers, and a residential environment conducive to physical activity. Participants preferring face-to-face counseling and exercising outdoors were younger, and those preferring to exercise alone and at home reported lower social support. Low-intensity exercise was preferred by participants who were sedentary, obese, less self-efficacious, enjoyed exercise less, perceived greater barriers, and reported lower social support. Participants with Internet access were more apt to be younger with higher income and greater social support.

Conclusions:

Demographic, medical, social cognitive, and environmental factors might influence exercise preferences and Internet access. Future research assessing the effectiveness of tailoring interventions based on these factors is warranted.

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Rachel E. Klaren, Jeffer E. Sasaki, Edward McAuley, and Robert W. Motl

Background:

Physical inactivity is common in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is very little known about the pattern and predictors of changes in physical activity over time.

Purpose:

This study examined changes in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) over a 30-month time period and the demographic and clinical predictors of such changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS).

Methods:

269 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and completed a demographic/clinical scale every 6 months over a 30-month period. Data were analyzed using latent class growth modeling (LCGM).

Results:

LCGM identified a two-class model for changes in levels of MVPA over time. Class 1 involved higher initial levels of MVPA and linear decreases in MVPA over time, whereas Class 2 involved lower initial levels of MVPA and linear increases in MVPA over time. LCGM further indicated that males were more likely (OR = 5.8, P < .05) and those with higher disability status were less likely (OR = 0.51, P < .05) to belong to Class 1 than Class 2.

Conclusion:

Levels of MVPA change over time in persons with RRMS and the pattern of change suggests that behavioral physical activity interventions for persons with MS might target men and those with lower disability.

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Kathleen A. Martin, W. Jack Rejeski, Mark R. Leary, Edward McAuley, and Susan Bane

Recent research has suggested that the Social Physique Anxiety Scale (SPAS) is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional measure. The present study challenged this position on both conceptual and empirical grounds. After deleting three questionable items from the SPAS, a series of confirmatory factor analyses were conducted across four samples of women who had completed the scale. Across all samples, the model fit indices (i.e., all > .90) suggested that a nine-item, single factor model of the SPAS is more parsimonious and conceptually clear than a two-factor model. It is recommended that researchers of social physique anxiety begin to use the nine-item version of the SPAS described in this paper.

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Katherine S. Hall, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Siobhan M. Phillips, and Edward McAuley

Objective:

The current study examined the psychometric properties and validity of the Multidimensional Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scale (MOEES) in a sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities.

Methods:

Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the hypothesized 3-factor model in 108 older adults (M age 85 yr) residing in continuing-care retirement communities.

Results:

Analyses supported the 3-factor structure of the MOEES reflecting physical, social, and self-evaluative outcome expectations, with a 12-item model providing the best fit. Theorized bivariate associations between outcome expectations and physical activity, self-efficacy, and functional performance were all supported.

Conclusions:

The 12-item version of the MOEES appears to be a reliable and valid measure of outcome expectations for exercise in this sample of older adults with physical and functional comorbidities. Further examination of the factor structure and the longitudinal properties of this measure in older adults is warranted.

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Robert W. Motl, Weimo Zhu, Youngsik Park, Edward McAuley, Jennifer A. Scott, and Erin M. Snook

We examined the reliability of scores from physical activity monitors in a sample of 193 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) who wore a pedometer and an accelerometer for a 7-day period. There were no significant differences among days for the pedometer (p = .12) or the accelerometer (p = .15) indicating that week and weekend days can be analyzed in a single intra-class correlation (ICC) analytic model. The 7 days of monitoring yielded ICC estimates of .93 for both the pedometer and accelerometer, and a minimum of 3 days yielded a reliability of .80 for both the pedometer and accelerometer. Results indicated that physical activity monitor scores are reliable measures of physical activity for individuals with MS.

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Fuzhong Li, Edward McAuley, Peter Harmer, Terry E. Duncan, and Nigel R. Chaumeton

The article describes a randomized, controlled trial conducted to examine the effects of a Tai Chi intervention program on perceptions of personal efficacy and exercise behavior in older adults. The sample comprised 94 low-active, healthy participants (mean age = 72.8 years. SD = 5.1) randomly assigned to either an experimental (Tai Chi) group or a wait-list control group. The study length was 6 months, with self-efficacy responses (barrier, performance efficacies) assessed at baseline, at Week 12, and at termination (Week 24) of the study. Exercise attendance was recorded as an outcome measure of exercise behavior. Random-effects models revealed that participants in the experimental group experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy over the course of the intervention. Subsequent repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that participants’ changes in efficacy were associated with higher levels of program attendance. The findings suggest that self-efficacy can be enhanced through Tai Chi and that the changes in self-efficacy are likely to improve exercise adherence.

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David X. Marquez, Eduardo E. Bustamante, Edward McAuley, and Dawn E. Roberts

Background:

Latinos have the lowest leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) rates. However, measurement of only LTPA might underestimate total physical activity. This study compares the objective physical activity of Latinos reporting high or low levels of LTPA and also compares gender differences.

Methods:

Data were obtained from 148 Latinos (n = 83 women, n = 65 men). Freedson cut points were employed to determine daily minutes of activity.

Results:

Latinos reporting high LTPA engaged in more daily minutes of vigorous and very vigorous activity than Latinos reporting low LTPA (P values < .05). There was no difference in daily minutes of moderate-intensity activity (P = .12), with both groups of Latinos meeting Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/American College of Sports Medicine guidelines. Men engaged in more daily minutes of moderate activity than women (P < .01).

Conclusions:

Many Latinos met physical activity guidelines even when reporting low levels of LTPA. Future studies should determine whether equivalent health benefits are achieved by meeting guidelines through LTPA and non-LTPA.

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Thomas R. Wójcicki, Amanda N. Szabo, Siobhan M. White, Emily L. Mailey, Arthur F. Kramer, and Edward McAuley

Background:

The purpose of this study was to assess the extent to which participation in a 12-month exercise program changed the degree of importance that older adults attached to physical activity. In addition, associations among changes in physical activity importance and health-related and psychosocial outcomes were examined.

Methods:

Community-dwelling older adults (N = 179) were recruited to participate in a 12-month exercise trial examining the association between changes in physical activity and fitness with changes in brain structure and psychological health. Participants were randomly assigned to a walking condition or a flexibility, toning, and balance condition. Physical, psychological, and cognitive assessments were taken at months 0, 6, and 12.

Results:

Involvement in a 12-month exercise program increased the importance that participants placed on physical activity; this positive change was similar across exercise condition and sex. Changes in importance, however, were only associated with changes in physical health status and outcome expectations for exercise midway through the intervention. There were no significant associations at the end of the program.

Conclusions:

Regular participation in physical activity can positively influence the perceived importance of the behavior itself. Yet, the implications of such changes on physical activity-related outcomes remain equivocal and warrant further investigation.

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Jason Fanning, Elizabeth A. Awick, Thomas R. Wójcicki, Neha Gothe, Sarah Roberts, Diane K. Ehlers, Robert W. Motl, and Edward McAuley

Background:

Previous research supports the efficacy of a 6-month DVD-delivered program for enhancing physical activity (PA) in older adults. In the current study, we examined the degree to which intervention-related increases in PA were maintained after a 6-month, no-contact follow-up.

Methods:

Follow-up assessments of PA via accelerometry and the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ) were collected in a sample of older adults (N = 238). Repeated measures analyses of variance were conducted to examine changes in PA over the course of the follow-up period.

Results:

For accelerometer measured PA, there was a significant time × treatment × age group interaction, F 1,203 =11.319, P = .001, η2 = .053, such that younger (≤70 years) intervention participants maintained high levels of PA across the follow-up period, while PA in older intervention and young control participants declined significantly. Rates of PA in older control participants remained low over the course of the follow-up period. Analyses of GLTEQ scores revealed similar, though less significant patterns.

Conclusions:

DVD-based exercise programs may be effective for maintaining PA in younger members of the older adult population; however, there remains a need to develop better strategies for promoting PA maintenance in older individuals when using home-based designs.

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Weimo Zhu, Zorica Nedovic-Budic, Robert B. Olshansky, Jed Marti, Yong Gao, Youngsik Park, Edward McAuley, and Wojciech Chodzko-Zajko

Purpose:

To introduce Agent-Based Model (ABM) to physical activity (PA) research and, using data from a study of neighborhood walkability and walking behavior, to illustrate parameters for an ABM of walking behavior.

Method:

The concept, brief history, mechanism, major components, key steps, advantages, and limitations of ABM were first introduced. For illustration, 10 participants (age in years: mean = 68, SD = 8) were recruited from a walkable and a nonwalkable neighborhood. They wore AMP 331 triaxial accelerometers and GeoLogger GPA tracking devices for 21 days. Data were analyzed using conventional statistics and highresolution geographic image analysis, which focused on a) path length, b) path duration, c) number of GPS reporting points, and d) interaction between distances and time.

Results:

Average steps by subjects ranged from 1810−10,453 steps per day (mean = 6899, SD = 3823). No statistical difference in walking behavior was found between neighborhoods (Walkable = 6710 ± 2781, Nonwalkable = 7096 ± 4674). Three environment parameters (ie, sidewalk, crosswalk, and path) were identified for future ABM simulation.

Conclusion:

ABM should provide a better understanding of PA behavior’s interaction with the environment, as illustrated using a real-life example. PA field should take advantage of ABM in future research.