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Jianmin Guan, Ping Xiang, Ron McBride, and April Bruene

This study examined the relationship between achievement goals and social goals and explored how students’ achievement goals and social goals might affect their reported persistence and effort expended toward physical education in high school settings. Participants were 544 students from two high schools in the southwest U.S. Multiple regression analysis revealed that social responsibility goals represented the greatest contributor to students’ expenditure of persistence and effort toward physical education. This was followed by mastery-approach goals, mastery-avoidance goals, and performance-approach goals. In addition, girls reported significantly higher values on both social-relationship goals and responsibility goals than did boys. Findings revealed that students had multiple goals for wanting to succeed in physical education; using both achievement goals and social goals when studying student motivation and achievement in high school physical education settings is recommend.

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Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride, April Bruene, and Yuanlong Liu

This study examined achievement goal orientation patterns and their impact on student motivation in physical education running programs. Participants included 533 fifth graders. They completed questionnaires assessing their achievement goal orientations, expectancy beliefs, task values, and intentions for future participation in running. They also completed a timed, 1-mile run. Data revealed 4 goal orientation patterns: low task/low ego, low task/high ego, high task/low ego, and high task/high ego. Students in the high-task/low-ego and high-task/high-ego groups demonstrated higher levels of motivation in running than those in the low-task/low-ego and low-task/high-ego groups.

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Weidong Li, Zan Gao, Zhihua Yin, Ping Xiang, Bo Shen, and Qingtao Kong

Purpose:

This study examined the impact of published national physical activity (PA) and health guidelines, documents, and initiatives on the evolution of research on teaching K-12 physical education (PE) in U.S.A. from 1996 to October 2013.

Methods:

A total of 262 peer-reviewed, data-based journal articles meeting our inclusion and exclusion criteria were identified through a comprehensive search. These articles were coded and the resulting data were analyzed.

Results and Discussions:

The findings showed that 41% (108 out of 262) of articles had cited these identified guidelines, documents and Centers for Disease Controls and Prevention (CDC) reports. In particular, the most frequently cited documents were Healthy People documents, the 1996 Report of Surgeon General, and CDC reports and studies. The citation of these guidelines, documents and CDC reports fluctuated over the years. Our findings also showed that among the research studies citing these national documents and reports, 56% of them focused on students’ PA/fitness, while only a few studies focused on students’ psycho-motor skills and game performance. The majority of the studies reviewed were nonexperimental quantitative studies while 10% using randomized control trials or randomized group control trials design.

Conclusion:

The results revealed a substantial proportion of articles cited national guidelines, initiatives and CDC study reports. These guidelines and documents have had some impact on the evolution of research on teaching K-12 PE.

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Xiaoxia Su, Ping Xiang, Ron E. McBride, Jiling Liu, and Michael A. Thornton

This study examined at-risk boys’ social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy within Bandura’s self-efficacy framework. A total of 97 boys, aged between 10 and 13 years, attending a summer sports camp completed questionnaires assessing their social self-efficacy, physical activity self-efficacy, prosocial behaviors, and effort. Results indicated that social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy were clearly distinguishable. However, the two constructs had a strong positive correlation. Both social self-efficacy and physical activity self-efficacy predicted prosocial behaviors significantly, with social self-efficacy having a stronger predictive power. Physical activity self-efficacy was a better predictor of effort than social self-efficacy. This study provides initial empirical evidence supporting Bandura’s conceptualization of the domain-specific features and predictive power of self-efficacy in a summer sports camp setting, and thus enables a better understanding of the nature and effects of self-efficacy.

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Weidong Li, Ping Xiang, Yung-Ju Chen, Xiuye Xie, and Yilin Li

Purpose:

The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the impact of the Silverman and Solmon article (1998) on how researchers handle the unit of analysis issue in their field-based intervention research in physical education in the United States and summarize statistical approaches that have been used to analyze the data, and (b) provide recommendations for future field-based intervention research and related statistical analysis.

Methods:

We identified and coded 50 peer-reviewed, field-based intervention research articles with a coding template, published in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport from 1998 to January 2016.

Results:

Our findings showed that 60% of the articles disregarded the unit of analysis and 80% of the articles applied the interventions to classes/groups, but used individual students as unit of analysis. Eight statistical modeling and analysis approaches were used to address the unit of analysis issue.

Discussion:

These findings provide first empirical evidence that the Silverman and Solmon 1998 article had limited impact on how researchers handle unit of analysis in their field-based intervention research in physical education. This suggests that the issue of unit of analysis remains largely unsolved. To address this problem, two experimental designs and corresponding statistical analysis methods were recommended.

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Mingda Li, Weidong Li, Junyoung Kim, Ping Xiang, Fei Xin, and Yan Tang

Self-efficacy theory assumes that students’ efficacy beliefs affect their performance through process variables, including behavior, cognition, and affection. The purpose of this study was to utilize self-efficacy theory as a theoretical framework to propose a conceptual model of a mediating relationship among perceived motor skill competence, successful practice trials, and motor skill performance in physical education. In addition, the authors reviewed the literature to provide evidence to support the potential mediating relationship by following the steps recommended by Baron and Kenny. This paper is significant because the authors integrated the literature of motor development/learning and physical education pedagogy to propose a conceptual model where successful practice trials would act as a behavioral mediator through which perceived motor skill competence affects students’ motor skill performance. This conceptual model can guide future research to identify students’ behaviors affecting their skill development, thus helping teachers develop pedagogies to improve motor skill performance in physical education.

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Xiaofen Deng Keating, Louis Harrison, Li Chen, Ping Xiang, Dolly Lambdin, Brian Dauenhauer, Willy Rotich, and Jose Castro Piñero

Although substantial inquiry has been made into fitness levels of students, there has been scant examination of knowledge in this domain. This article seeks to review and analyze research on student health-related fitness (HRF) knowledge mastery in K–16 programs by examining studies published in the literature. Two major results emerging from the work are misconceptions about fitness and the lack of an adequate amount of HRF knowledge among students at all educational levels (i.e., elementary, secondary, and college). These results were essentially the same as those found more than 20 years ago, indicating a persistent deficiency in fitness education. In addition, little is understood as to how HRF knowledge contributes to the establishment of lifetime physical activity patterns. Student HRF knowledge determinants as well as effective instructional strategies also need thorough study. Based on these findings, implications for improving student HRF knowledge through physical education are discussed, and recommendations for future research are included.