Disability sport provides a setting in which attributes, practices, and beliefs of spectators can be examined. The Spectator Questionnaire (SQ) was used to collect data on 114 of the spectators attending the 1993 International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Games (ISMWG). Most spectators (96%) were not athletes in the games, and only 24% were relatives of athletes with disabilities. Spectators were attending the games primarily to encourage athletes in their efforts and to learn more about wheelchair sports. Spectators indicated they would prioritize their time to view wheelchair sports on television. Studying spectators at carefully organized wheelchair sport events may provide useful information that can be used in other settings, such as in the development and implementation of programs to facilitate the inclusion of people with disabilities in mainstreamed environments.
Christina Evaggelinou and Dimitris Grekinis
Christina Evaggelinou, Nikolaos Tsigilis, and Areti Papa
This study was designed to examine the underlying structure of the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) in Ulrich (1985). The TGMD was administered to 644 children who were randomly divided into two groups (calibration group and validation group). The calibration group (n = 324) included 150 boys and 174 girls, and the validation group included 160 boys and 160 girls, ranging from 3 to 10 years. A two-factor model was postulated and supported. According to the model, seven variables measuring children’s ability for moving into space loaded on one factor (locomotor skills), while five variables measuring children’s ability for controlling objects loaded on the other factor (object control skills). In addition, the proposed model was found to be invariant across the two groups. Good cross-generalizability of the TGMD appears to support its validity. Physical educators working with young children may use it with confidence when assessing and planning physical education programs involving locomotor and object control skills.
Yves C. Vanlandewijck, Christina Evaggelinou, Daniel D. Daly, Siska Van Houtte, Joeri Verellen, Vanessa Aspeslagh, Robby Hendrickx, Tine Piessens, and Bjorn Zwakhoven
The player classification system in wheelchair basketball (composed of four classes) is based on an analysis of players’ functional resources through game observation and field-testing. This study examines if the classes are in the correct proportion relative to each other. During the Wheelchair Basketball World Championships in Sydney 1998, 12 teams were videotaped for three 40-min games. Eighty-eight male players were retained for a detailed performance analysis by means of the Comprehensive Basketball Grading System (CBGS). Although a slight underestimation of the functional potential of Class II and III players was noted, it was concluded that the player classification system in wheelchair basketball proportionally represents the functional potential of the players.