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Andrea R. Taliaferro and Sean M. Bulger

The purpose of this study was to determine expert consensus regarding the essential characteristics of adapted physical education practicum experiences for preservice physical educators. Researchers used a 3-round Delphi procedure involving the repeated circulation of an online questionnaire to a panel of content experts (N = 24). During Round 1, panelists generated 70 items in response to an open-ended prompt. Then, panelists rated these recommendations on importance and feasibility in the following rounds. After the third round, 23 items were eliminated for failing to reach consensus. Of the remaining 47 items, 24 were both very important and feasible (both means >6), 21 were very important (mean ≥ 6) and probably feasible (mean ≥ 5), and 2 were feasible (mean ≥ 6) and moderately important (mean ≥ 5). Four major themes were identified through a post hoc qualitative cluster analysis: program context, teaching and learning activities, outcomes/soft skills, and evaluation of instructor performance.

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Kathleen R. Lust, Michelle A. Sandrey, Sean M. Bulger, and Nathan Wilder


With a limited number of outcomes-based studies, only recommendations for strength-training and rehabilitation programs can be made.


To determine the extent to which throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception improved after completion of a 6-week training program that included open kinetic chain (OKC), closed kinetic chain (CKC), and/or core-stability exercises.


A 2 × 3 factorial design.


Division III college.


19 healthy baseball athletes with a control group of 15.


Two 6-week programs including OKC, CKC, and core-stabilization exercises that were progressed each week.

Main Outcome Measures:

Functional throwing-performance index, closed kinetic chain upper extremity stability test, back-extensor test, 45° abdominal-fatigue test, and right- and left-side bridging test.


There was no significant difference between groups. An increase was evident in all pretest-to-posttest results, with improvement ranging from 1.36% to 140%.


Both of the 6-week training programs could be used to increase throwing accuracy, core stability, and proprioception in baseball.