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Jack H. Wilmore

This paper presents an overview of eating disorders, including definitions, clinical criteria for appropriate diagnosis, and a discussion of the potential for increased risk for eating disorders in special populations of female athletes. This is followed by a discussion of the prevalence of eating disorders in normal and athletic populations. From this discussion, it seems clear that female athletes in endurance or appearance sports are at an increased risk for disordered eating. Finally, the paper focuses on related disorders—a triad associating eating disorders, menstrual dysfunction, and bone mineral disorders. It is clear that secondary amenorrhea is associated with malnutrition and disordered eating. Further, bone mineral disorders are related to menstrual dysfunction. Disordered eating may represent the initiating factor of this triad.

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Anneke Kwee and Jack H. Wilmore

A sample of 399 boys, 8 to 15 years of age, underwent a comprehensive evaluation to determine the extent to which coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors are related to an estimate of cardiorespiratory fitness. The boys were divided into four groups on the basis of their directly measured VO2max. Significant differences were found between fitness groups for relative body fat, plasma triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and systolic blood pressure divided by height, with the higher fitness groups exhibiting substantially lower values. When covariance analyses were conducted, adjusting for differences in age and relative body fat, the differences in blood pressure were no longer statistically significant. No differences were found between fitness groups for total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, or the ratio of HDL/TC. It is concluded that there is not a strong relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness and CAD risk factors in boys 8- to 15-years of age.

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Kenneth R. Turley and Jack H. Wilmore

This study investigated whether cardiovascular responses at a given submaximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2, L · min-1) are different between the treadmill (TM) and cycle ergometer (CE). Submaximal cardiovascular measurements were obtained at three work rates on both the TM and CE in 7- to 9-year-old children (12 males and 12 females). Using regression analysis, it was determined that there were no differences between the TM and CE in cardiac output (L · min-1), stroke volume (SV, ml · beat-1) or heart rate (beats · min-1) at a given V̇O2 (L · min-1). There were differences in the total peripheral resistance (TPR, units) and arterial-venous oxygen difference (a-vO2 diff, ml · 100 ml-1) to V̇O2 (L · min-1) relationship. While there were statistically significant differences in TPR and a-vO2 diff between the two modalities, there was substantial overlap of individual values at any given submaximal V̇O2, thus the physiological significance is questionable. Hence, we conclude that in 7- to 9-yearold children there are no differences in submaximal cardiovascular responses between the CE and TM.

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Bruce S. Alpert and Jack H. Wilmore

This paper reviewed the available research literature to determine the role of exercise training in reducing resting blood pressure in adolescents. Similar to the adult population, there is little evidence to support the efficacy of exercise training for reducing resting blood pressure in normotensive adolescents, although several studies reported small decreases in either or both systolic and diastolic pressure. In hypertensive adolescents, aerobic-type exercise training consistently reduced both systolic and diastolic pressure, but seldom to completely normal levels. Resistance training has not been studied as extensively, but may be of some benefit. It is recommended that chronic aerobic and strength activities be part of an overall health maintenance program.

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Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore

The present study was designed to investigate the effects of exercise training on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in moderately obese women. It was hypothesized that exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate. Nineteen previously sedentary, moderately obese women (age = 38.0 ± 0.9 years, percent body fat = 37.5 ± 0.8) trained for 20 weeks using either resistance training (RT) or a combination of resistance training arid walking (RT/W). The high intensity resistance training program was designed to increase strength and fat-free mass and the walking program to increase aerobic capacity. There was also a non-exercising control group (C) of 9 subjects in this study. Fat-free mass was significantly increased in both the RT (+1.90 kg) and RT/W (+1.90 kg) groups as a result of the training program. No group showed significant changes in fat mass or relative body fat from pre- to post-training. Aerobic capacity was slightly, though significantly, increased in the RT/W group only. The RT group showed a significant increase (+44 kcal · day−1), while the RT/W group showed a significant decrease (-53 kcal · day−1) in resting metabolic rate post-training. RT can potentiate an increase in RMR through an increase in fat-free mass, and the decrease in RMR in the RT/W group may have been a result of heat acclimation from the walk training.

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Heidi K. Byrne and Jack H. Wilmore

The present cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between exercise training and resting metabolic rate (RMR). The focus of this investigation was to compare RMR in aerobically trained (AT), resistance trained (RT), and untrained (UNT) women. Subjects were also classified as highly trained (HT), moderately trained (MT), or untrained (UNT) in order to examine the relationship between RMR and level of training. Sixty-one women between the ages of 18 and 46 years volunteered to serve as subjects in this study. Each subject completed measurements of body composition, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), and two consecutive measurements of RMR. The data presented show that there was no significant difference in resting metabolic rate between resistance-trained, aerobically trained, and control subjects. However, when grouped by intensity of training, there was a trend for an increased resting metabolic rate (kcal/day) in the highly trained subjects, regardless of mode of training.

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Danette M. Rogers, Kenneth R. Turley, Kathleen I. Kujawa, Kevin M. Harper, and Jack H. Wilmore

This study was designed to examine the reliability and variability of running economy in 7-, 8-, and 9-year-old boys and girls. Forty-two children (21 boys and 21 girls) participated in two submaximal treadmill tests to determine running economy at two absolute work rates (5 mph and 6 mph). Reliability and variability were determined for oxygen consumption (V̇O2), heart rate (HR), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), stride frequency, and stride length. With the exception of RER and V̇O2 relative to body surface area, reliability estimates were moderate to high (.80 to .94). Mean variability of all responses were similar to those reported for adults, however, the range of intraindividual variability was slightly greater. These results indicate that two submaximal measurements result in higher reliability estimates than a single test and may therefore provide a more appropriate description of a child’s running economy.

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Kenneth R. Turley, Danette M. Rogers, Kevin M. Harper, Kathleen I. Kujawa, and Jack H. Wilmore

This study was designed to determine the differing cardiorespiratory responses between maximal treadmill (TM) and cycle (CY) ergometry, and the reliability and variability of these responses in 46 children 7 to 9 years old (23 boys and 23 girls). Two maximal TM and two maximal CY tests were administered, as well as a body composition assessment. The TM resulted in a 9.4%, 11,1%, and 10.2% higher maximal oxygen consumption values (V̇O2, ml·kg−1·min−1) than the CY in boys, girls, and the total population, respectively. Both the TM and the CY proved to be reliable measures of maximal V̇O2 (ml·kg−1·min−1) in both boys and girls, with intraclass correlations ranging from R = .63 to .90. Variability was significantly less (p ≤ .05) on the CY (V̇O2 in L·min−1) than the TM, 4.4% versus 6.2%, respectively.

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Danette M. Rogers, Kenneth R. Turley, Kathleen I. Kujawa, Kevin M. Harper, and Jack H. Wilmore

This study was designed to examine the relationship between oxygen consumption and both body surface area and body mass in children to determine what allometric scaling factors from these variables provide appropriate means of expressing data for this population. These scaling factors were then compared to exponents based on theoretical and animal models to determine if the same relationships were present. Forty-two children (21 boys and 21 girls) 7 to 9 years of age participated in maximal and submaximal treadmill testing. The submaximal V̇O2 to body size relationship proved to be a more appropriate factor to use when scaling V̇O2 than the relationship seen between body size and V̇O2max. Therefore, in this population of children, V̇O2 relative to body surface area or body mass to the power 0.67, demonstrated submaximally, provided a more appropriate means of data expression both statistically and physiologically than the traditional expression of V̇O2 relative to body mass (ml·kg−1·min−1).

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Kenneth R. Turley, Jack H. Wilmore, Bruce Simons-Morton, Jean M. Williston, Jackie Reeds Epping, and Ginny Dahlstrom

This study was designed to determine the validity and reliability of the 9-min distance run in assessing cardiorespiratory fitness in third-grade children. Fifty-one children (27 girls and 24 boys) participated in at least one maximal cycle ergometer test to determine peak oxygen consumption (V̇O2peak) and in two 9-min runs. Significant (p < .01) test-retest intraclass correlations indicated that both the peak cycle ergometer test and the 9-min run were reliable measures in boys and girls and when the total sample was combined. Interclass correlations of r = .62 and r = .64 were attained between V̇O2peak (ml·kg−1·min−1) and 9-min Run 1 and 9-min Run 2, respectively. When data were separated by gender, 9-min Run 1 and 9-min Run 2 correlated to V̇O2peak (r = .56 and r = .48 for the girls and r = .65 and r = .71 for the boys, respectively). These results suggest that the 9-min distance run is a reasonably valid and highly reliable field test for estimating cardiorespiratory fitness in third-grade children.