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Keith B. Wheeler and Keith A. Garleb

The use of gamma-oryzanol and phytosterols is gaining popularity among various athletic populations. These compounds are being consumed in the belief that they elicit anabolic effects ranging from increased testosterone production and release to stimulating human growth hormone release. However, published scientific studies suggest that these compounds are poorly absorbed. Furthermore, animal studies indicate that when these compounds are injected subcutaneously or intravenously, they induce antianabolic or catabolic activity. Normally, less than 5% of orally consumed phytosterols are absorbed from the Intestinal tract, with the majority being excreted in the feces. Intravenous or subcutaneous injections of gamma-oryzanol in rats have been shown to suppress luteinizing hormone release, reduce growth hormone synthesis and release, and increase release of the catecholamines, dopamine and norepinephrine, in the brain. Although it hasn't been directly measured, this metabolic milieu, if accurate, may actually reduce testosterone production.

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David Criswell, Scott Powers, John Lawler, John Tew, Stephen Dodd, Yryik Iryiboz, Richard Tulley, and Keith Wheeler

This study compared the efficacy of a 7% glucose polymer beverage containing electrolytes (GP) versus a nonnutrient, nonelectrolyte placebo (P) in maintaining blood homeostasis during recovery from football and determined whether consumption of the GP beverage improved anaerobic performance immediately after football competition when compared with the placebo. Forty-four high school football players participated in a 50-play scrimmage designed to simulate game conditions. At each of six periods before and during the scrimmage, players consumed 170 ml of the GP or P beverage. Eight maximal-effort 40-yd sprints (40-sec rest intervals) were performed before and after the scrimmage to assess the decrement in anaerobic performance from the scrimmage. Venous blood samples were drawn before and after the scrimmage and analyzed. The pre- to postscrimmage differences in mean and peak sprint velocities did not differ between treatments, nor did body weight and plasma. In contrast, the percent decrease in plasma volume was significantly greater in the P group. Postscrimmage increases in glucose and insulin were greater in the GP group. These data suggest that CHO-electrolyte drinks do not prevent a decline in anaerobic performance when compared to water, but a CMO-electrolyte drink is more effective in maintaining PV than water during recovery from anaerobic exercise.