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Claire E. Badenhorst, Katherine E. Black, and Wendy J. O’Brien

and maintaining an adequate supply of iron for normal metabolic functioning and effective erythropoiesis ( Hare, 2017 ). The homeostatic expression of hepcidin in response to an individual’s iron status has been established in athletes, with numerous research investigations demonstrating that

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Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, and Julien D. Périard

stores ( Garvican-Lewis et al., 2016a ). Consequently, following a pre-altitude blood test 1–2 weeks before altitude and medical review, daily oral iron supplementation (50–100 mg of elemental iron) for the majority of athletes is recommended throughout altitude exposure to support erythropoiesis

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Stacy N. Scott, Cary M. Springer, Jennifer F. Oody, Michael S. McClanahan, Brittany D. Wiseman, Tyler J. Kybartas, and Dawn P. Coe

preadolescent and adolescent stages), hormonal and other physiological factors, such as physical growth, changes in body composition, and erythropoiesis, impact VO 2 peak ( 11 , 12 ). Thus, age should be included as a predictor of VO 2 peak. Sex also influences VO 2 peak, with no significant differences prior

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Sergei Iljukov, Jukka-Pekka Kauppi, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Juha E. Peltonen, and Yorck O. Schumacher

magnitude of the performance decrease reflects the gains that were available by means of blood doping before. Such performance increases would require transfusion of >800 mL of whole blood or the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating substances in significant dosages, both of which are reliably detectable by

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Damir Zubac, Drazen Cular, and Uros Marusic

, Friedmann-Bette B . Rapid body mass loss affects erythropoiesis and hemolysis but does not impair aerobic performance in combat athletes . Scand J Med Sci Sports . 2016 ; 26 ( 5 ): 507 – 517 . PubMed doi:10.1111/sms.12485 10.1111/sms.12485 25916419 20. Brown AM , De Félix-Dávila RA . Hydration

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Jose A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, José G. Villa, Raúl Pernía, and Carl Foster

, Marroyo JA , et al . Does intermittent hypoxia increase erythropoiesis in professional cyclists during a 3-week race? Can J Appl Physiol . 2005 ; 30 : 61 – 73 . PubMed doi:10.1139/h05-105 10.1139/h05-105 15855683 10. Mena P , Maynar M , Campillo JE . Changes in plasma enzyme activities in

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Erin L. McCleave, Katie M. Slattery, Rob Duffield, Philo U. Saunders, Avish P. Sharma, Stephen Crowcroft, and Aaron J. Coutts

-092559 10.1136/bjsports-2013-092559 9. Brugniaux JV , Schmitt L , Robach P , et al . Eighteen days of “living high, training low” stimulate erythropoiesis and enhance aerobic performance in elite middle-distance runners . J Appl Physiol . 2006 ; 100 ( 1 ): 203 – 211 . PubMed ID: 16179396 doi:10

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Damir Zubac, Hrvoje Karnincic, and Damir Sekulic

): 410 – 416 . PubMed ID: 25828698 doi:10.1007/s00059-015-4218-2 25828698 10.1007/s00059-015-4218-2 26. Reljic D , Feist J , Jost J , Kieser M , Friedmann-Bette B . Rapid body mass loss affects erythropoiesis and hemolysis but does not impair aerobic performance in combat athletes . Scand

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Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Dan Bergland, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Antti A. Mero, and Trent Stellingwerff

important, our findings suggest that initial Hbmass levels (Figure  2 ) appear to have an even greater effect on the magnitude of hematological adaptations following altitude training. There have been previous indications that athlete health is associated with changes in erythropoiesis in athletes. Gough et

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Avish P. Sharma, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Brad Clark, Marijke Welvaert, Christopher J. Gore, and Kevin G. Thompson

erythropoiesis in 400 and 800 m runners . Int J Sports Med . 2010 ; 31 ( 6 ): 382 – 388 . PubMed ID: 20301047 doi:10.1055/s-0030-1248328 20301047 10.1055/s-0030-1248328 15. Wachsmuth NB , Völzke C , Prommer N , et al . The effects of classic altitude training on hemoglobin mass in swimmers . Eur J