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Christopher M. McLeod, Haozhou Pu, and Joshua I. Newman

privilege economic interests over environmental ones ( Lenskyj, 2000 ; Mansfield, 2009 ; Pitter, 2009 ). Contributing factors include: imbalanced relationships between environmental stakeholders ( Kearins & Pavlovich, 2002 ); undemocratic tendencies in event planning ( Hayes & Horne, 2011 ); ineffective

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Brian P. McCullough, Madeleine Orr, and Nicholas M. Watanabe

begins by conducting an LCA on the direct impacts from the event. As highlighted in Figure  1 , the direct impacts consider the production side of the event, including venue operations, event planning, event production, and staffing and staff impact, as well as the consumption side, containing factors

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Erin Morris, Ryan Vooris, and Tara Q. Mahoney

the ones, not their group members, who knew how to put together a marketing or event plan because they were the ones who did the bulk of the work on the project in school. The participants also learned that leadership skills are an important part of any group dynamic. Dawn discussed how, in group

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Michael Annear, Tetsuhiro Kidokoro, and Yasuo Shimizu

with the Olympics was relatively low, with less than 8% of the respondents indicating that they intended to attend an event as a spectator or apply to be an Olympic volunteer. Most respondents indicated that they planned to watch the Games on television or have no engagement at all with the event

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim, and Jamie Whitfield

 al., 2018 ). Food choices at event/championship Athletes do not have direct influence on what food is served at events. Plan ahead by knowing what will be served and augmenting choices with one’s own food. All you can eat buffets (e.g., Olympic Village) are often the norm and boredom and/or stress eating

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Jules Boykoff

. Gaffney , C. ( 2013 ). Between discourse and reality: The un-sustainability of mega-event planning . Sustainability, 5 , 3926 – 3940 . doi:10.3390/su5093926 10.3390/su5093926 Gusmão de Oliveira , N. ( 2015 ). O Poder dos Jogos e osJogos do Poder: Interessesem Campo naProducaodaCidadepara o

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Kyoung-yim Kim and Heejoon Chung

public sphere (pp.  109 – 142 ). Cambridge, MA : MIT . Fraser , N. ( 1997 ). Justice interrupts: Critical reflections on the “postsocialist” condition . New York, NY/London, UK : Routledge . Gaffney , C. ( 2013 ). Between discourse and reality: The un-sustainability of mega-event planning

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Rob Millington, Simon C. Darnell, and Brad Millington

.1080/09523367.2013.874339 Gaffney , C. ( 2010 ). Mega-events and socio-spatial dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, 1919–2016 . Journal of Latin American Geography, 9 ( 1 ), 7 – 29 . doi:10.1353/lag.0.0068 10.1353/lag.0.0068 Gaffney , C. ( 2013 ). Between discourse and reality: The un-sustainability of mega-event planning

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Valérian Cece, Noémie Lienhart, Virginie Nicaise, Emma Guillet-Descas, and Guillaume Martinent

1), January (T2), and May (T3). The psychological need thwarting scale and psychological need satisfaction scale were completed only at T1. Despite fluctuations due to the variety of sports, the competitive schedule of young athletes is mainly based on the school time (e.g., main competitive events

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Jamie Cleland

, confront and control them ( Toohey, 2008 ). Total risk avoidance is now centrally located within any event planning, irrespective of a low probability of any incident actually occurring. One of the security measures introduced since 9/11 is a greater focus on the individual and his or her possessions when