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run. Conclusion.— Contrary to our hypothesis, two weeks vitamin D supplementation (10.000 UI /day), did not change the postexercise hepcidin response in long-distance runners. Impact of Vitamin D Supplementation on Hormone Levels and Cytokine Generation During Ultramarathon Katarzyna Kasprowicz, PhD

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Hanan A. Alfawaz, Soundararajan Krishnaswamy, Latifah Al-Faifi, Halima Ali Bin Atta, Mohammad Al-Shayaa, Saad A. Alghanim, and Nasser M. Al-Daghri

for protection from cardiovascular diseases ( Nunez-Cordoba & Martinez-Gonzalez, 2011 ), calcium and vitamin D supplementation for increasing bone mineral density ( Silk et al., 2015 ), and vitamin C in preventing and treating the common cold ( Hemila & Chalker, 2013 ). Despite the absence of

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Katie Crockett, Saija A. Kontulainen, Jonathan P. Farthing, Philip D. Chilibeck, Brenna Bath, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones, and Catherine M. Arnold

version 22.0 (IBM SPSS Statistics for Macintosh, Version 22.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Significance was set at α = .05. Results There were no significant differences in age, height, weight, PASE scores, number of medications, age of onset of menopause, or total calcium or vitamin D supplementation between

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Michael P. Corcoran, Miriam E. Nelson, Jennifer M. Sacheck, Kieran F. Reid, Dylan Kirn, Roger A. Fielding, Kenneth K.H. Chui, and Sara C. Folta

, Teixeira, & Lazaretti-Castro, 2009 ; Tieland, Dirks, et al., 2012 ; Tieland, van de Rest, et al., 2012 ). Stimulation of anabolic factors such as insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has been noted with postexercise protein and vitamin D supplementation, and therefore may aid in mitigating any age

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Francisco Alvarez-Barbosa, Jesús del Pozo-Cruz, Borja del Pozo-Cruz, Antonio García-Hermoso, and Rosa María Alfonso-Rosa

vitamin D supplementation Note . WBV = whole-body vibration; A = whole-body vibration accelerations; C = control; F = frequency; P = peak-to-peak displacement amplitude; TUG = Timed up and Go test; EQ-5D = Euroqol-5 dimension; PS = physical therapy; PPA = physiological profile assessment; KE = knee

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Megan A. Kuikman, Margo Mountjoy, Trent Stellingwerff, and Jamie F. Burr

with those who consumed 1,500 mg of calcium per day ( Nieves et al., 2010 ). Furthermore, in the armed services, female recruits who received a 2,000 mg calcium and 800 IU vitamin D supplement had a 21% lower rate of stress fracture than those receiving a placebo over 8 weeks of training ( Lappe et

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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman, and Cheryl A. Lovelady

. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D . Washington, DC : National Academy Press , 2010 . 24. Basile LA , Taylor SN , Wagner CL , Horst RL , Hollis BW . The effect of high-dose vitamin D supplementation on serum vitamin D levels and milk calcium concentration in lactating

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Anna Witkowska, Małgorzata Grabara, Dorota Kopeć, and Zbigniew Nowak

Latosik et al 36 after an 8-week NW program. Sentinelli et al 37 studied women with type 2 diabetes who were involved in a 12-week structured NW program and noted an increase in HDL-C. Prusik et al 38 showed positive changes in the lipid profile and vitamin D supplementation after 12 weeks of NW

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Christopher Rosimus

-related performance in elite athletes . International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 21 ( 2 ), 97 – 104 . PubMed 10.1123/ijsnem.21.2.97 Lappe , J. , Cullen , D. , Haynatzki , G. , Recker , R. , Ahlf , R. , & Thompson , K. ( 2008 ). Calcium and vitamin d supplementation decreases

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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen

bleeding, digestive problems, and/ or increased LDL. Vitamin D: An essential fat-soluble vitamin. Skin exposure to sunlight normally accounts for 90% of the source of vitamin D. Enhanced adaptive response to exercise; decreased stress fractures Data on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle