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Ronald J. Maughan, Louise M. Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D. Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M. Phillips, Eric S. Rawson, Neil P. Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M. Shirreffs, Lawrence L. Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M. Ali, Richard G.M. Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, and Lars Engebretsen

bleeding, digestive problems, and/ or increased LDL. Vitamin D: An essential fat-soluble vitamin. Skin exposure to sunlight normally accounts for 90% of the source of vitamin D. Enhanced adaptive response to exercise; decreased stress fractures Data on the effects of vitamin D supplementation on muscle

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Leigh M. Vanderloo, Jonathan L. Maguire, Charles D.G. Keown-Stoneman, Patricia C. Parkin, Cornelia M. Borkhoff, Mark S. Tremblay, Laura N. Anderson, Catherine S. Birken, and on behalf of the TARGet Kids! Collaboration

–2012), and Ddrops provided nonfinancial support (vitamin D supplements) for an investigator-initiated study on vitamin D and respiratory tract infections (2011–2015). C.M.B. reports previously receiving a grant for a completed investigator-initiated study from the SickKids Center for Health Active Kids (CHAK

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Xiaomin Sun, Zhen-Bo Cao, Kumpei Tanisawa, Satomi Oshima, and Mitsuru Higuchi

of football and performed their exercise training for at least 5 days per week for >2 hr per day (16∶30–20∶00) on an outdoor football field (35°N latitude). All participants were in good health and had no history of diabetes. Athletes were excluded if they were regularly taking vitamin D supplements

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Leigh M. Vanderloo, Jonathan L. Maguire, David W. H. Dai, Patricia C. Parkin, Cornelia M. Borkhoff, Mark S. Tremblay, Laura N. Anderson, Catherine S. Birken, and on behalf of the TARGet Kids! Collaboration

-initiated study from the Dairy Farmers of Canada (2011–2012) and Ddrops provided nonfinancial support (vitamin D supplements) for an investigator-initiated study on vitamin D and respiratory tract infections (2011–2015). C.S.B. reports previously receiving a grant for a completed investigator-initiated study from

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Tom Clifford

-induced gains in muscle strength in older adults, suggesting a potential role for vitamin D supplementation in long-term musculoskeletal adaptations to exercise (reviewed in Candow et al., 2012 ). As of yet, there is little research to suggest that vitamin D supplementation would translate to enhanced

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Allison Naber, Whitney Lucas Molitor, Andy Farriell, Kara Honius, and Brooke Poppe

.1186/s12889-017-4197-8 10.1186/s12889-017-4197-8 Björkman , M. , Sorva , A. , & Tilvis , R. ( 2008 ). Vitamin D supplementation has no major effect on pain or pain behavior in bedridden geriatric patients with advanced dementia . Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 20 ( 4 ), 316 – 321

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Graeme L. Close, Craig Sale, Keith Baar, and Stephane Bermon

determined by microdialysis in humans . The Journal of Physiology, 521 , 299 – 306 . doi:10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.00299.x 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1999.00299.x Lappe , J. , Cullen , D. , Haynatzki , G. , Recker , R. , Ahlf , R. , & Thompson , K. ( 2008 ). Calcium and vitamin D supplementation

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Maria À. Cebrià i Iranzo, Mercè Balasch-Bernat, María Á. Tortosa-Chuliá, and Sebastià Balasch-Parisi

.1155/2014/231312 Rondanelli , M. , Klersy , C. , Terracol , G. , Talluri , J. , Maugeri , R. , Guido , D. , & Perna , S. ( 2016 ). Whey protein, amino acids, and vitamin D supplementation with physical activity increases fat-free mass and strength, functionality, and quality of life and decreases inflammation

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Oluwaseyi Osho, Oluwatoyosi Owoeye, and Susan Armijo-Olivo

exercise interventions reduce risk and rate of falls and that multifactorial assessment and intervention, home safety interventions, vitamin D supplementation, and other interventions are effective for fall prevention. However, the issue of how the levels of adherence and attrition attained in the exercise

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Andreia Teixeira, Ronaldo Gabriel, Luis Quaresma, Ana Alencoão, José Martinho, and Helena Moreira

. Percept Mot Skills . 2015 ; 121 ( 2 ): 350 – 370 . PubMed ID: 26348226 doi:10.2466/06.PMS.121c17x0 10.2466/06.PMS.121c17x0 26348226 101. Irandoust K , Taheri M . The effect of vitamin d supplement and indoor vs outdoor physical activity on depression of obese depressed women . Asian J Sports Med