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-year case report JL Areta 2. Dietary selenium intakes and their association with muscle strength and function in ≥85 year old adults: the Newcastle 85+ Study G Perri, T Hill, J Mathers, N Mendonça 3. Treatment strategies to reverse bone loss in athletes with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea J Hamer

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Mia A. Schaumberg, Lynne M. Emmerton, David G. Jenkins, Nicola W. Burton, Xanne A.K. Janse de Jonge, and Tina L. Skinner

active women reported manipulating their menstrual cycle 4 or more times in the previous year (35.7%) than recreationally active (27.0%; P  = .021) and competitive athletes (22.4%; P  = .009). Approximately 0.5% of all participants reported continuous use of the pill to completely induce amenorrhea in

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Jaqueline P. Batista, Igor M. Mariano, Tállita C.F. Souza, Juliene G. Costa, Jéssica S. Giolo, Nádia C. Cheik, Foued S. Espindola, Sarah Everman, and Guilherme M. Puga

normotensive according to the Brazilian Hypertension Society guidelines ( Brazilian Society of Cardiology, 2016 ) (systolic blood pressure [SBP] at rest 111 ± 11 mmHg and diastolic pressure at rest 71 ± 8 mmHg), at least 6.4 ± 5.4 years after menopause, as characterized by amenorrhea of at least 12 months

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Mathew Hillier, Louise Sutton, Lewis James, Dara Mojtahedi, Nicola Keay, and Karen Hind

suppress menstrual function, and in this study, one third of women athletes reported amenorrhea in the last 12 months. It is possible that this figure is an underestimation because women using oral contraceptives were not excluded from the study. Low energy availability and disruption of menstrual

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Paula B. Costa, Scott R. Richmond, Charles R. Smith, Brad Currier, Richard A. Stecker, Brad T. Gieske, Kimi Kemp, Kyle E. Witherbee, and Chad M. Kerksick

.1123/ijsnem.21.4.280 9. Scheid JL , Williams NI , West SL , VanHeest JL , De Souza MJ . Elevated PYY is associated with energy deficiency and indices of subclinical disordered eating in exercising women with hypothalamic amenorrhea . Appetite . 2009 ; 52 ( 1 ): 184 – 192 . PubMed ID: 18929607

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Monica Klungland Torstveit, Ida Fahrenholtz, Thomas B. Stenqvist, Øystein Sylta, and Anna Melin

hypothalamic amenorrhea . Appetite, 52 ( 1 ), 184 – 192 . doi:10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.016 10.1016/j.appet.2008.09.016 Sterling , W.M. , Golden , N.H. , Jacobsen , M.S. , Ornstein , R.M. , Hertz , S.M. ( 2009 ). Metabolic assessment of menstruating and nonmenstruating normal weight adolescents

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Christopher J. Stevens, Megan L.R. Ross, Amelia J. Carr, Brent Vallance, Russ Best, Charles Urwin, Julien D. Périard, and Louise Burke

phase could not be determined when the athlete was using a combined oral contraceptive pill (n = 4) or when the athlete was experiencing secondary amenorrhea (n = 1). Of the remaining female athletes, 3 were determined to be in the luteal phase and 1 in the follicular phase during pretesting, and 3 were

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Kadhiresan R. Murugappan, Ariel Mueller, Daniel P. Walsh, Shahzad Shaefi, Akiva Leibowitz, and Todd Sarge

mass-sensitive sports ( Johnson, 1994 ; Rosen et al., 1986 ). Disordered eating accompanying rapid fluctuations in body composition can lead to dysregulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian axis, placing female mixed martial artists at a disproportionate risk for amenorrhea and osteoporosis

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Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Dan Bergland, Arja L.T. Uusitalo, Antti A. Mero, and Trent Stellingwerff

correlated with Hbmass responses to the altitude training. We found significantly lower Hbmass pre in amenorrheic vs eumenorrheic females (amenorrhea signals of chronic low EA 15 ) and a trend for higher increases in Hbmass with lower LEAF-Q scores (LEAF-Q scores of >8 are likely to be indicative of low EA

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Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani and Stuart D.R. Galloway

unwarranted. However, as many active female individuals and athletes can present with amenorrhea or oligomenorrhea due to disturbances in hormonal status, the responses of those individuals may be different ( Baker, 1981 ). Therefore, studies on rehydration and fluid balance in women who experience