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Peter Gröpel and Jürgen Beckmann

Researchers suggests that a pre-performance routine (PPR) can improve performance in competitions. The effectiveness of left-hand contractions, a PPR to trigger facilitative cortical processes for skilled motor performance, was tested in two studies. In Study 1, gymnasts competing at the German university championships in artistic gymnastics performed their routines with or without the PPR. In Study 2, gymnasts performed the balance beam exercise either using the PPR or the control task (right-hand contractions) under simulated competition pressure. The qualification performance (Study 1) and the pressure-free performance (Study 2) were controlled. In both studies, participants in the PPR group performed better than control participants. The results indicate that left-hand contractions may be a useful PPR in the field.

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Thaiz Mattos Sureira, Olga Silverio Amancio, and Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini Braga

This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts’ nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6–16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exerciseinduced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

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Richard D. Gordin Jr. and Keith P. Henschen

The following article explains the sport psychology program utilized with the USA Women’s Artistic Gymnastics Team. The program was developed in 1983 and was implemented over the past quadrennium. Both service and research delivery systems are explained as well as the organization of service delivery over the past 5 years. This multimodel approach to the systematic training of elite world-class female athletes is presented to illustrate the psychometrics, mental skill development, and group process techniques utilized within the U.S. Gymnastic Federation’s artistic program. Both organizational and philosophical components of service delivery are explained. The range of services and problems encountered are also discussed. Finally, a detailed account of service leading to the Olympic Games and the program’s effectiveness is presented.

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Satya S. Jonnalagadda, Dan Benardot, and Marian Nelson

The nutrient intakes and dietary practices of elite, U.S. national team, artistic female gymnasts (n = 33) were evaluated using 3-day food records. The gymnasts' reported energy intake was 34.4 kcal/kg (total 1,678 kcal/day), which was 20% below the estimated energy requirement. The contributions of protein, fat, and carbohydrate to total energy intake were 17%, 18%, and 66%, respectively. All reported vitamin intakes, except vitamin E, were above the RDA. The reported mineral intakes, especially calcium, zinc, and magnesium, were less than 100% of the RDA. The overall nutrient densities of the subjects' diets were higher than expected. Eighty-two percent of the gymnasts reported taking nonprescription vitamin and mineral supplements, and 10% reported taking prescription vitamin and mineral supplements. Forty-eight percent of the gymnasts reported being on a self-prescribed diet. Compared to NHANES III, the reported nutrient intake of these gymnasts was different from that of the average U.S. adolescent female. In summary, certain key nutrients such as calcium, iron, and zinc should be given more attention to prevent nutrient deficiencies and subsequent health consequences.

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Claire Calmels and Jean F. Fournier

In this experiment, differences in the temporal organization of routines in artistic gymnastics executed under mental and physical conditions were examined. Twelve elite female gymnasts performed their floor routines mentally, then performed the same routines physically. On each of three days, the performance was filmed, and the durations of the mental and actual routines were timed. The results showed that mental movement times were shorter than physical routine times. It was concluded that the speed of visualization depends on the situation in which the gymnasts visualize as well as on the function that the athlete attributes to the use of imagery. We observed a trend when comparing the different stages of the relative duration of mental and actual routines. If confirmed, we hypothesized that the lengthening of the relative duration of certain stages under mental conditions could be linked to the perceived difficulty of the gymnastics elements.

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8 8 4 4 Energy and Nutrient Intakes of the United States National Women's Artistic Gymnastics Team Satya S. Jonnalagadda * Dan Benardot * Marian Nelson * 12 1998 8 8 4 4 331 331 344 344 10.1123/ijsn.8.4.331 Urinary Indices during Dehydration, Exercise, and Rehydration Lawrence E. Armstrong

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.1123/tsp.2015-0117 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Professional Tennis on the ATP Tour: A Case Study of Mental Skills Support John F. Mathers * 6 2017 31 2 187 198 10.1123/tsp.2016-0012 A Pre-Performance Routine to Optimize Competition Performance in Artistic Gymnastics Peter Gröpel * Jürgen Beckmann * 6 2017

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4 4 235 235 242 242 10.1123/ijsnem.22.4.235 Influence of Artistic Gymnastics on Iron Nutritional Status and Exercise-Induced Hemolysis in Female Athletes Thaiz Mattos Sureira * Olga Silverio Amancio * Josefina Aparecida Pellegrini Braga * 8 2012 22 22 4 4 243 243 250 250 10.1123/ijsnem.22

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Sport Athletes at Summer and Winter Olympic Games Terry Orlick * 12 1989 3 3 4 4 358 358 365 365 10.1123/tsp.3.4.358 Preparing the USA Women’s Artistic Gymnastics Team for the 1988 Olympics: A Multimodel Approach Richard D. Gordin Jr. * Keith P. Henschen * 12 1989 3 3 4 4 366 366 373 373 10

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Darren Steeves, Leo J. Thornley, Joshua A. Goreham, Matthew J. Jordan, Scott C. Landry, and Jonathon R. Fowles

, Calton M , Aisbett B . Reliability and variability of day-to-day vault training measures in artistic gymnastics . Sports Biomech . 2010 ; 9 ( 2 ): 79 – 97 . doi:10.1080/14763141.2010.488298 10.1080/14763141.2010.488298 26. Hopkins WG , Marshall SW , Batterham AM , Hanin J