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Peter Gröpel and Jürgen Beckmann

Researchers suggests that a pre-performance routine (PPR) can improve performance in competitions. The effectiveness of left-hand contractions, a PPR to trigger facilitative cortical processes for skilled motor performance, was tested in two studies. In Study 1, gymnasts competing at the German university championships in artistic gymnastics performed their routines with or without the PPR. In Study 2, gymnasts performed the balance beam exercise either using the PPR or the control task (right-hand contractions) under simulated competition pressure. The qualification performance (Study 1) and the pressure-free performance (Study 2) were controlled. In both studies, participants in the PPR group performed better than control participants. The results indicate that left-hand contractions may be a useful PPR in the field.

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Richard D. Gordin Jr. and Keith P. Henschen

The following article explains the sport psychology program utilized with the USA Women’s Artistic Gymnastics Team. The program was developed in 1983 and was implemented over the past quadrennium. Both service and research delivery systems are explained as well as the organization of service delivery over the past 5 years. This multimodel approach to the systematic training of elite world-class female athletes is presented to illustrate the psychometrics, mental skill development, and group process techniques utilized within the U.S. Gymnastic Federation’s artistic program. Both organizational and philosophical components of service delivery are explained. The range of services and problems encountered are also discussed. Finally, a detailed account of service leading to the Olympic Games and the program’s effectiveness is presented.

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Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Britton W. Brewer

Flikikammo is a troubling phenomenon in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic backward moving gymnastics skills as a normal part of a routine. To better understand the effects of flikikammo over time, the confidence, perceived pressure, physical well-being, energy, and stress levels of gymnasts (n = 6) and cheerleaders (n = 4) were assessed weekly over 10 weeks. Half of the participants reported experiencing flikikammo at the start of the study, and half served as age, skill level, and sport-matched controls. Athletes with flikikammo indicated that pressure from coaches and higher energy levels were related to more severe flikikammo. For participants under the age of 18, higher levels of life stress positively correlated with flikikammo, but for those over 18, higher life stress was negatively correlated with flikikammo. These findings highlight the complexity of flikikammo and suggest that complex solutions may be needed to address flikikammo issues.

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Claire Calmels and Jean F. Fournier

In this experiment, differences in the temporal organization of routines in artistic gymnastics executed under mental and physical conditions were examined. Twelve elite female gymnasts performed their floor routines mentally, then performed the same routines physically. On each of three days, the performance was filmed, and the durations of the mental and actual routines were timed. The results showed that mental movement times were shorter than physical routine times. It was concluded that the speed of visualization depends on the situation in which the gymnasts visualize as well as on the function that the athlete attributes to the use of imagery. We observed a trend when comparing the different stages of the relative duration of mental and actual routines. If confirmed, we hypothesized that the lengthening of the relative duration of certain stages under mental conditions could be linked to the perceived difficulty of the gymnastics elements.

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Brigid McCarthy

This discussion illustrates how fans of women’s artistic gymnastics have used rapidly innovating platforms for user-generated content to create and access sporting information. In doing so, these fans are contributing to the formation of rich collective intelligences around the sport and how these new-media texts are beginning to affect mainstream sports media coverage. Using gymnastics fandom as an example, this discussion demonstrates how online culture has become a prime outlet for those with niche sporting interests. These new-media forms such as blogs, video platforms, and message boards augment and act as supplements to the mainstream sports media coverage, as well as expanding the kinds of information sports fans now can access in this enriched information environment.

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.1123/tsp.2015-0117 PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE Professional Tennis on the ATP Tour: A Case Study of Mental Skills Support John F. Mathers * 6 2017 31 2 187 198 10.1123/tsp.2016-0012 A Pre-Performance Routine to Optimize Competition Performance in Artistic Gymnastics Peter Gröpel * Jürgen Beckmann * 6 2017

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Sport Athletes at Summer and Winter Olympic Games Terry Orlick * 12 1989 3 3 4 4 358 358 365 365 10.1123/tsp.3.4.358 Preparing the USA Women’s Artistic Gymnastics Team for the 1988 Olympics: A Multimodel Approach Richard D. Gordin Jr. * Keith P. Henschen * 12 1989 3 3 4 4 366 366 373 373 10

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Eating Pathology Among Collegiate Athletes: Examining Stigma and Perfectionism as Moderating and Mediating Mechanisms Shelby J. Martin * Timothy Anderson * 18 10 2019 1 09 2020 14 3 234 250 10.1123/jcsp.2018-0098 jcsp.2018-0098 Mental Blocks in Artistic Gymnastics and Cheerleading: Longitudinal

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Peter Gröpel, Christopher Mesagno, and Jürgen Beckmann

competition performance in artistic gymnastics . The Sport Psychologist, 31, 199 – 207 . doi:10.1123/tsp.2016-0054 10.1123/tsp.2016-0054 Gröpel , P. , & Mesagno , C. ( 2019 ). Choking interventions in sports: A systematic review . International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12, 176

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Leslee A. Fisher

Gymnastics with his vaginal “procedure” to relieve back pain. In 2014, Nassar was cleared of any wrongdoing by MSU after there was another complaint of sexual assault during a medical exam from a recently graduated gymnast; he remained USA Women’s Artistic Gymnastics team doctor but retired from being USA