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Saqib Deen, Martin James Turner, and Rebecca S.K. Wong

The use of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) in sport psychology has received little attention in research to date, but is steadily growing. Therefore, to further add to the building body of research, this study examines the efficacy of REBT (comprising five counseling sessions, and four homework assignments) in decreasing self-reported irrational beliefs, and increasing self-reported resilient qualities in five elite squash players from Malaysia. The study uses a single-case multiple-baseline across-participants design. Visual and graphical analyses revealed that REBT reduced self-reported irrational beliefs significantly in all athletes, and raised self-reported resilient qualities significantly in some athletes. Athlete’s feedback, reflections on the usage of REBT, Athlete Rational Resilience Credos, and the practice of sport psychology across cultures are discussed, along with guidance for the future use of REBT in relevant settings.

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Julien Tripette, Haruka Murakami, Hidemi Hara, Ryoko Kawakami, Yuko Gando, Harumi Ohno, Nobuyuki Miyatake, and Motohiko Miyachi

Caffeine has been described as a sports performance-enhancing substance. However, it is unclear whether it can increase the level of physical activity (PA) in nonathletic individuals. This study investigates the relationship between daily caffeine consumption and (a) daily PA/fitness or (b) intervention-induced changes in PA in women and men. On the basis of responses to a dietary habit questionnaire, which included items on caffeinated beverages, 1,032 Japanese adults, were categorized into lower or higher caffeine consumption groups (relative to the median caffeine consumption). In each group, daily step count; sedentary time; and light, moderate, and vigorous PA outcomes were objectively measured. Physical fitness, including peak oxygen consumption, was also evaluated. The relationship between daily caffeine consumption and the change in the levels of PA was investigated in a subgroup of 202 subjects who participated in a 1-year PA counseling intervention. Women in the higher caffeine consumption group presented higher moderate-to-vigorous PA and step count compared with their counterparts in the lower consumption group (4.0 ± 2.1 vs. 3.3 ± 2.1 MET-hr/day, p < .001; 10,335 ± 3,499 vs. 9,375 ± 3,527 steps/day, p < .001). A significant positive correlation was noted between caffeine consumption and peak oxygen consumption among women (r = .15, p < .001). No caffeine-related effects were noted in men. The lower and higher caffeine consumption groups showed no significant differences in their levels of PA at the end of the 1-year intervention. Therefore, caffeine consumption appears to be associated with higher levels of PA in Japanese women. Further studies are needed to clarify this association.

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Rory J. Mack, Jeff D. Breckon, Paul D. O’Halloran, and Joanne Butt

using MI with a single patient to increase healthy behaviors during cardiac rehabilitation ( Pietrabissa et al., 2015 ), to show increased adherence to medication for a patient with schizophrenia ( Ertem & Duman, 2016 ), and to illustrate how MI can be integrated into career-counseling interventions