the retention of beverages during rested euhydrated conditions. For example, the dose of caffeine administered is likely to be key, as doses of caffeine up to 452 mg may not induce a significant diuresis versus matched volumes of water in habitual caffeine users ( Armstrong et al., 2005 ; Killer et
Ronald J. Maughan, Phillip Watson, Philip A.A. Cordery, Neil P. Walsh, Samuel J. Oliver, Alberto Dolci, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, and Stuart D.R. Galloway
Lawrence E. Armstrong
Recreational enthusiasts and athletes often are advised to abstain from consuming caffeinated beverages (CB). The dual purposes of this review are to (a) critique controlled investigations regarding the effects of caffeine on dehydration and exercise performance, and (b) ascertain whether abstaining from CB is scientifically and physiologically justifiable. The literature indicates that caffeine consumption stimulates a mild diuresis similar to water, but there is no evidence of a fluid-electrolyte imbalance that is detrimental to exercise performance or health. Investigations comparing caffeine (100-680 mg) to water or placebo seldom found a statistical difference in urine volume. In the 10 studies reviewed, consumption of a CB resulted in 0-84% retention of the initial volume ingested, whereas consumption of water resulted in 0-81% retention. Further, tolerance to caffeine reduces the likelihood that a detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalance will occur. The scientific literature suggests that athletes and recreational enthusiasts will not incur detrimental fluid-electrolyte imbalances if they consume CB in moderation and eat a typical U.S. diet. Sedentary members of the general public should be at less risk than athletes because their fluid losses via sweating are smaller.
Ben Desbrow, Daniel Murray, and Michael Leveritt
To investigate the effect of manipulating the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise.
Seven male volunteers exercised on a cycle ergometer until 1.96 ± 0.25% body mass (mean± SD) was lost. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included a low-alcohol beer (2.3% ABV; LightBeer), a low-alcohol beer with 25 mmol×L−1 of added sodium (LightBeer+25), a full-strength beer (4.8% ABV; Beer), or a full-strength beer with 25 mmol×L−1 of added sodium (Beer+25). Volumes consumed were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise and were consumed over a 1h period. Body mass and urine samples were obtained before and hourly for 4 hr after beverage consumption.
Significantly enhanced net fluid balance was achieved following the LightBeer+25 trial (–1.02 ± 0.35 kg) compared with the Beer (–1.59 ± 0.32 kg) and Beer+25 (–1.64 ± 0.28 kg) treatments. Accumulated urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+25 trial (1477 ± 485 ml) compared with the Beer+25 (2101 ± 482 ml) and Beer (2175 ± 372 ml) trials.
A low alcohol beer with added sodium offers a potential compromise between a beverage with high social acceptance and one which avoids the exacerbated fluid losses observed when consuming full strength beer.
Ben Desbrow, Danielle Cecchin, Ashleigh Jones, Gary Grant, Chris Irwin, and Michael Leveritt
The addition of 25 mmol·L−1 sodium to low alcohol (2.3% ABV) beer has been shown to enhance post exercise fluid retention compared with full strength (4.8% ABV) beer with and without electrolyte modification. This investigation explored the effect of further manipulations to the alcohol and sodium content of beer on fluid restoration following exercise. Twelve male volunteers lost 2.03 ± 0.19% body mass (mean ± SD) using cycling-based exercise. Participants were then randomly allocated a different beer to consume on four separate occasions. Drinks included low alcohol beer with 25 mmol·L−1 of added sodium [LightBeer+25], low alcohol beer with 50 mmol·L−1 of added sodium [LightBeer+50], midstrength beer (3.5% ABV) [Mid] or midstrength beer with 25 mmolL−1 of added sodium [Mid+25]. Total drink volumes in each trial were equivalent to 150% of body mass loss during exercise, consumed over a 1h period. Body mass, urine samples and regulatory hormones were obtained before and 4 hr after beverage consumption. Total urine output was significantly lower in the LightBeer+50 trial (1450 ± 183 ml) compared with the LightBeer+25 (1796 ± 284 ml), Mid+25 (1786 ± 373 ml) and Mid (1986 ± 304 ml) trials (allp < .05). This resulted in significantly higher net body mass following the LightBeer+50 trial (-0.97 ± 0.17kg) compared with all other beverages (LightBeer+25 (-1.30 ± 0.24 kg), Mid+25 (-1.38 ± 0.33 kg) and Mid (-1.58 ± 0.29 kg), all p < .05). No significant changes to aldosterone or vasopressin were associated with different drink treatments. The electrolyte concentration of low alcohol beer appears to have more significant impact on post exercise fluid retention than small changes in alcohol content.
Jaison L. Wynne and Patrick B. Wilson
effects on neuromotor function, high doses of alcohol impair muscle protein synthesis (MPS; Parr et al., 2014 ) and stimulate diuresis ( Jones, 1990 ), which could lead to suboptimal training adaptions and rehydration, respectively. Then again, ingesting beer can acutely increase plasma antioxidant
Julian A. Owen, Matthew B. Fortes, Saeed Ur Rahman, Mahdi Jibani, Neil P. Walsh, and Samuel J. Oliver
and a 4-hr diuretic-induced diuresis, respectively. However, thirst 0–9 was the only marker with a common dehydration threshold to identify mild ID and ED (≥4 for ID and ED; Table 4 ). Notably, the present study is the first to determine the validity of thirst ratings using diagnostic accuracy
Aaron Coutts, Peter Reaburn, Kerry Mummery, and Mark Holmes
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of prior glycerol loading on competitive Olympic distance triathlon performance (ODT) in high ambient temperatures. Ten (3 female and 7 male) well-trained triathletes (VO2max = 58.4 ±2.4 ml-kg−1 min−1; best ODT time = 131.5 ± 2.6 min) completed 2 ODTs (1.5-km swim, 40-km bicycle, 10-km run) in a randomly assigned (placebo/ glycerol) double-blind study conducted 2 weeks apart. The wet-bulb globe temperature (outdoors) was 30.5 + 0.5 °C (relative humidity: 46.3 ± 1.1%; hot) and 25.4 + 0.2 °C (relative humidity: 51.7 ± 2.4%; warm) for day 1 and day 2, respectively. The glycerol solution consisted of 1.2 g of glycerol per kilogram of body mass (BM) and 25 ml of a 0.75 g · kg−1 BM carbohydrate solution (Gatorade®) and was consumed over a 60-min period, 2 hours prior to each ODT. Measures of performance (ODT time), fluid retention, urine output, blood plasma volume changes, and sweat loss were obtained prior to and during the ODT in both the glycerol and placebo conditions. Following glycerol loading, the increase in ODT completion time between the hot and warm conditions was significantly less than the placebo group (placebo 11:40 min vs. glycerol 1:47 min; p < .05). The majority of the performance improvement occurred during the final 10-km run leg of ODT on the hot day. Hyperhydration occurred as a consequence of a reduced diuresis (p < .05) and a subsequent increase in fluid retention (p < .05). No significant differences were observed in sweat loss between the glycerol and placebo conditions. Plasma volume expansion during the loading period was significantly greater (p < .05) on the hot day when glycerol appeared to attenuate the performance decrement in the heat. The present results suggest that glycerol hyperhydration prior to ODT in high ambient temperatures may provide some protection against the negative performance effects of competing in the heat.
Dawn M. Emerson, Toni M. Torres-McGehee, Susan W. Yeargin, Kyle Dolan, and Kelcey K. deWeber
not act as a diuretic. 1 , 13 On the other hand, caffeine can cause diuresis when high dosages are consumed and/or when consumed by individuals who do not typically use caffeine. 1 , 2 , 11 , 14 , 15 Due to misconceptions, it is critical that healthcare providers understand physiological
Liam Sayer, Nidia Rodriguez-Sanchez, Paola Rodriguez-Giustiniani, Christopher Irwin, Danielle McCartney, Gregory R. Cox, Stuart D.R. Galloway, and Ben Desbrow
prior to recommencing physical activity ( Evans et al., 2017 ; Sawka et al., 2007 ). However, rapidly consuming large volumes of hypotonic fluid has the potential to reduce plasma osmolality ( P OSM ), resulting in increased urinary output (i.e., “fluid-induced diuresis”), potentially delaying a return
Reid Reale, Gary Slater, Gregory R. Cox, Ian C. Dunican, and Louise M. Burke
for 3 days prior to 1 day of fluid restriction (15 ml·kg·day −1 ) was associated with increased urine production, both during the days of high fluid consumption and fluid restriction. Specifically, diuresis continued during fluid restriction, leading to greater fluid losses relative to intake on the