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Ramon Spaaij and Nico Schulenkorf

Recent research has examined how sports events and sport-for-development projects can create, sustain, and maximize positive social impacts for local communities. This article takes this debate forward by arguing that the cultivation of safe space is a key ingredient of sport-for-development management and community event leverage. Safe space is conceptualized as a multidimensional process that involves physical, psychological/affective, sociocultural, political, and experimental dimensions. Drawing on empirical findings from Sri Lanka, Israel, and Brazil, the article shows how these dimensions of safe space operate and interact in practice, and identifies practical strategies that sport managers, policymakers, and practitioners can use to cultivate safe spaces in and through sports projects and events.

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Fei Gao, Bob Heere, Samuel Y. Todd, and Brian Mihalik

Although the concept of social leverage has been a key component of research on mega sport events, authors know little about how the initial partnership between stakeholders of the event allows for social leveraging prior to the event. Thus, the purpose of this study is to understand what intentions stakeholders of a newly formed interorganizational relationship for the 2019 Federation of International Basketball Associations World Cup have toward social leverage initiatives and whether they coordinate such efforts with other stakeholders. Data were collected through two rounds of interviews with high-ranking leaders in the stakeholder organizations. The authors found that social leverage is not part of the early planning for the event because (a) different stakeholders/organizations have little knowledge of social leverage, (b) the media amplifies current values and beliefs of the interorganizational relationship stakeholders, and (c) the Chinese culture has an implicit/explicit influence on the interorganizational relationship. The study contributes to our understanding of challenges surrounding social leveraging.

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César García

Real Madrid Football Club is today the richest sport team in the world and the third most valuable sport brand, according to the latest rankings (e.g., Deloitte, 2010; Forbes 2009). This scholarly commentary proposes the application of a relationship management model of building long-lasting relationships with fans as the main key of Real Madrid’s success. Results of this study highlight that, under the presidency of Florentino Pérez, a public relations approach has been integrated into every strategic decision including the recruitment of players with media appeal; the use of event planning, Internet, social media, promotional tours, and publications; and the display of Real Madrid’s own audiovisual media. The adoption of this model has proven successful despite poor sports results.

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Nico Schulenkorf and Deborah Edwards

Building on the evidence of social impacts generated by sport events, there is a need for research to identify strategies suitable for maximizing event benefits for disparate interest communities. This paper investigates the opportunities and strategic means for sustaining and leveraging social event benefits arising from intercommunity sport events in the ethnically divided Sri Lanka. Following an interpretive mode of inquiry, findings are derived from the analysis of two focus groups and 35 in-depth interviews with Sinhalese, Tamil, Muslim and international event stakeholders. To maximize event benefits, findings suggest that event organizers and host communities focus strategically on children as catalysts for change; increase ethnically mixed team sport activities; provide event-related sociocultural opportunities; combine large-scale events with regular sport-for-development programs; and engage in social, cultural, political and educational event leverage. By implementing these strategies and tactics, intercommunity sport events are likely to contribute to local capacity building and inclusive social change, which can have flow-on effects to the wider community. These findings extend the academic literature on strategic event planning, management and leverage, as they provide a focus on community event leverage for social purposes in a developing world context—an area which has thus far received limited empirical research.

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Christopher M. McLeod, Haozhou Pu, and Joshua I. Newman

privilege economic interests over environmental ones ( Lenskyj, 2000 ; Mansfield, 2009 ; Pitter, 2009 ). Contributing factors include: imbalanced relationships between environmental stakeholders ( Kearins & Pavlovich, 2002 ); undemocratic tendencies in event planning ( Hayes & Horne, 2011 ); ineffective

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Kyoung-yim Kim and Heejoon Chung

public sphere (pp.  109 – 142 ). Cambridge, MA : MIT . Fraser , N. ( 1997 ). Justice interrupts: Critical reflections on the “postsocialist” condition . New York, NY/London, UK : Routledge . Gaffney , C. ( 2013 ). Between discourse and reality: The un-sustainability of mega-event planning

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Rob Millington, Simon C. Darnell, and Brad Millington

.1080/09523367.2013.874339 Gaffney , C. ( 2010 ). Mega-events and socio-spatial dynamics in Rio de Janeiro, 1919–2016 . Journal of Latin American Geography, 9 ( 1 ), 7 – 29 . doi:10.1353/lag.0.0068 10.1353/lag.0.0068 Gaffney , C. ( 2013 ). Between discourse and reality: The un-sustainability of mega-event planning

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Jules Boykoff

. Gaffney , C. ( 2013 ). Between discourse and reality: The un-sustainability of mega-event planning . Sustainability, 5 , 3926 – 3940 . doi:10.3390/su5093926 10.3390/su5093926 Gusmão de Oliveira , N. ( 2015 ). O Poder dos Jogos e osJogos do Poder: Interessesem Campo naProducaodaCidadepara o

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Jamie Cleland

, confront and control them ( Toohey, 2008 ). Total risk avoidance is now centrally located within any event planning, irrespective of a low probability of any incident actually occurring. One of the security measures introduced since 9/11 is a greater focus on the individual and his or her possessions when

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Damian Haslett, Javier Monforte, Inhyang Choi, and Brett Smith

to 2022,” 2019 ). The IPC, through its members (i.e., National Paralympic Committees [NPCs]) and activities (i.e., sport events), plans to use Para sport to change the storyline of disability (Objective 3.1), advance the implementation of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of Persons with