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Taina Rantanen, Pertti Era, Markku Kauppinen, and Eino Heikkinen

This study analyzes the associations of socioeconomic status (SES), health, and physical activity with maximal isometric strength in 75-year-old men (n = 104) and women (n = 191). Maximal isometric strength was measured with dynamometers; the forces were adjusted using body weight. The maximal forces for women varied from 66% (trunk flexion) to 73% (knee extension) of those of the men. SES was not associated with muscle force. For men the trunk forces and elbow flexion force correlated negatively with the number of chronic diseases, index of musculoskeletal pain, and self-rated health. For women all the strength test results correlated with self-rated health; the other health indicators showed significant correlation with trunk extension force only. For both sexes the physically more active exhibited greater strength. The index of musculoskeletal symptoms explained the variance on trunk force factor in both sexes. It was concluded that a higher level of everyday physical activity and good values in the state-of-health indicators were the most important variables explaining greater strength among the elderly.

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Taina Rantanen and Eino Heikkinen

The aim of this study was to examine alterations in maximal isometric strength of multiple muscle groups over 5 years and to compare strength changes between individuals who maintained a high level of physical activity and others who did not. As a part of the Evergreen Project, 20 men and 59 women participated in at least one strength test at the age of 80 and again 5 years later. Men displayed no decrease in lean body mass over the follow-up. and the only significant strength decrease was in elbow flexion strength. In women, both lean body mass and muscle strength decreased significantly (except trunk extension strength). Overall, those men and women who were considered to have maintained a high level of activity retained their strength at a higher level than the more sedentary participants. Older people should be encouraged to continue physically demanding activities to maintain muscle strength at an adequate level for independent living.

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Urs Granacher, Andre Lacroix, Katrin Roettger, Albert Gollhofer, and Thomas Muehlbauer

This study investigated associations between variables of trunk muscle strength (TMS), spinal mobility, and balance in seniors. Thirty-four seniors (sex: 18 female, 16 male; age: 70 ± 4 years; activity level: 13 ± 7 hr/week) were tested for maximal isometric strength (MIS) of the trunk extensors, flexors, lateral flexors, rotators, spinal mobility, and steady-state, reactive, and proactive balance. Significant correlations were detected between all measures of TMS and static steady-state balance (r = .43−.57, p < .05). Significant correlations were observed between specific measures of TMS and dynamic steady-state balance (r = .42−.55, p < .05). No significant correlations were found between all variables of TMS and reactive/proactive balance and between all variables of spinal mobility and balance. Regression analyses revealed that TMS explains between 1–33% of total variance of the respective balance parameters. Findings indicate that TMS is related to measures of steady-state balance which may imply that TMS promoting exercises should be integrated in strength training for seniors.

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Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Susana Aznar-Laín, Asier Mañas, Juan Castellanos, Julián Alcázar, Ignacio Ara, Esmeralda Mata, Rosa Daimiel, and Francisco José García-García

To investigate the short- and long-term effects of concurrent strength and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on octogenarian COPD patients, nine males (age = 84.2 ± 2.8 years, BMI = 29.3 ± 2.3) with low to severe COPD levels (2.1 ± 1.5 BODE index) underwent a supervised 9-week strength and HIIT exercise program. Training had a significant (p < .05) impact on senior fitness test scores (23–45%), 30-m walking speed (from 1.29 ± 0.29–1.62 ± 0.33 m/s), leg and chest press 1RM (38% and 45% respectively), maximal isometric strength (30–35%), and 6-min walking test (from 286.1 ± 107.2–396.2 ± 106.5 m), and tended to increase predicted forced vital capacity by 14% (p = .07). One year after the intervention all training-induced gains returned to their preintervention values except for the chest press 1RM (p <.05). Short-term concurrent strength and HIIT training increases physical fitness in the oldest-old COPD patients, and has potential long-term benefits.

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Deborah Hebling Spinoso, Nise Ribeiro Marques, Dain Patrick LaRoche, Camilla Zamfollini Hallal, Aline Harumi Karuka, Fernanda Cristina Milanezi, and Mauro Gonçalves

researchers’. The study of FD was continued by Samuel et al. ( 2011 ), who measured knee and hip torques during both stair ascent and descent relative to maximal isometric strength. They found in their older adult sample that knee extensor FD was 103% during stair ascent and 120% during stair descent. Hip

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Matti Hyvärinen, Sarianna Sipilä, Janne Kulmala, Harto Hakonen, Tuija H. Tammelin, Urho M. Kujala, Vuokko Kovanen, and Eija K. Laakkonen

isometric strength in men and women from the age of 75 to 80 years . Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 45 ( 12 ), 1439 – 1445 . PubMed ID: 9400552 doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb03193.x 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1997.tb03193.x Rantanen , T. , Guralnik , J.M. , Foley , D. , Masaki , K

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A. Dallaway, J. Hattersley, J. Tallis, D. Renshaw, C. Griffen, and M. Duncan

doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048044 Rantanen , T. , Era , P. , & Heikkinen , E. ( 1994 ). Maximal isometric strength and mobility among 75-year-old men and women . Age and Ageing, 23 ( 2 ), 132 – 137 . PubMed ID: 8023721 doi: 10.1093/ageing/23.2.132 Rantanen , T. , Era , P

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Ilha G. Fernandes, Matheus A. Souza, Matheus L. Oliveira, Bianca Miarka, Michelle A. Barbosa, Andreia C. Queiroz, and Alexandre C. Barbosa

.C. , & Denadai , B.S. ( 2014 ). Postactivation potentiation biases maximal isometric strength assessment . BioMed Research International, 2014 , 126961 . PubMed ID: 25133157 doi:10.1155/2014/126961 10.1155/2014/126961 Maki , B.E. , & McIlroy , W.E. ( 1996 ). Postural control in the older adult