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John Charles Bradbury

novelty effect from stadium age is well documented in U.S. sports leagues. Coates and Humphreys ( 2005 ) provided a comprehensive study of the novelty effect in MLB, the NBA, and the NFL, identifying a stadium age effect in baseball and basketball, but not in football. The authors found that team age has

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Hojun Sung, Brian M. Mills, and Michael Mondello

associated with lower viewership. This is in contrast to our initial hypothesis. This could imply that older MLS teams are drawing more fans to the stadium, losing fans over the course of time, or that our variable is simply picking up a large novelty effect for new expansion teams. Much of this effect may

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Carrie W. LeCrom and Tiesha Martin

novelty effect due to the timing of the data collection postintervention. The 3- and 6-month follow-up attempted to account for this, but there is still the potential that the effects of the exchange will subside over time. In addition, each intervention (in-country residency) was only 2 weeks in duration

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Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel, and Adam Karg

characteristics is the first step in attracting fan interest and identifying with customer internalization. Previous organizations have successfully evoked excitement from consumers prior to game play because of feelings of curiosity and differentiation resulting from the novelty effect ( James et al., 2002