with athletes ( MacPherson & Kerr, 2019 ; Sanderson, 2016b ). People can become direct victims of social media interactions that feature uncontrolled and unexamined virtual abuse ( Litchfield, Kavanagh, Osborne, & Jones, 2018 ). As such, fans are employing social media to directly abuse athletes after
Jimmy Sanderson, Matthew Zimmerman, Sarah Stokowski, and Alison Fridley
Yosuke Tsuji, Gregg Bennett, and James H. Leigh
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting brand awareness of virtual advertising in sports. Specifically, the study tested the effects of animation, repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification. An experiment using two Latin square designs was conducted to assess the effects of these factors on awareness levels. Results indicated no effect of animation, while effects of repetition, baseball involvement, and team identification were found to affect viewers’ cognitive responses. Managerial implications, limitations, and future research are discussed.
Ryan Charles Luke and Jaye K. Luke
At many institutions introductory exercise physiology courses are required for all kinesiology students. The laboratory portion of these courses usually involves development of knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) connected with content presented in lecture. Due to scalability issues, the Kinesiology Department at California State University Monterey Bay cannot offer traditional laboratory experiences. Therefore, online and hybrid laboratory experiences were created to provide similar opportunities for students, address scalability issues, and enhance student engagement and learning. Creation of these carefully crafted laboratory experiences allowed instructors to (a) highlight and explain key foundational principles, (b) provide experiences involving practical application of material presented in lecture, and (c) present students with additional learning experiences while maintaining high learner expectations. The following article outlines the process used to create these virtual laboratory experiences for students in an undergraduate introductory exercise physiology course.
Jacky Forsyth, Nicola Brown, Rachael Bullingham, and Claire-Marie Roberts
Feet Owing to COVID-19, which in many countries led to restrictions regarding travel and public gatherings, the planned 2020 face-to-face conference was replaced with a free virtual event, hosted by Staffordshire University, UK. With early research evidence suggesting that COVID-19 had heightened
Over the past 30 years almost all world-class United States sprinters have been black. There were also many fast black sprinters in the United States before the 1960s, but in addition there were a considerable number of world-class white sprinters. In fact, during the 1940s and 1950s the fastest men were white. This was not the case during the 1930s, when the best male sprinters were black. This essay discusses the phenomenon and attempts to give reasons for it. Sociological explanations seem considerably more plausible than physical characteristics based on perceived racial differences.
Emma Kavanagh, Chelsea Litchfield, and Jaquelyn Osborne
Academic scholars are increasingly raising concern about the disproportionate levels of gender-based violence experienced by women in virtual spaces, suggesting this to be a global pandemic ( Ging & Siapera, 2018 ). Jane ( 2018 ) believes that gendered abuse and threats online cause “embodied
Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov
dysfunction (structural data) in the brain after trauma. Advances in modalities such as functional neuroimaging, quantitative electroencephalography, and virtual reality–based cognitive testing combined with current clinical batteries of exams such as neuropsychological testing, oculomotor examination, and
Jay Scherer and Steven J. Jackson
Despite the rapid growth in new media technologies and interest from both sport organizations and corporations in interacting with premium consumers, very little research examines the cultural production and regulation of electronic sporting spaces of consumption. Drawing from interviews with the New Zealand Rugby Union’s (NZRU) cultural intermediaries, this article presents an investigation of the production of allblacks.com, the virtual home of the New Zealand All Blacks and the official website of the game’s governing body. Specifically, we employ a cultural-economic theoretical framework to illuminate the institutionalized codes of production and work routines of the rugby union’s cultural intermediaries who police and regulate what appears on the website to unashamedly promote an elective affinity that includes corporate sponsors, media organizations, players, and the NZRU.
This article addresses Leonard’s (2006a) call for inquiry into virtual sport by exploring how Electronic Arts’ Fight Night Round 2 (2005) inscribes the boxing body into the digital game. This article qualitatively analyzes the text of the game in order to consider how it deals with the immateriality of bodies in new media as it translates them into digital space. By focusing on the game’s avatar creation system and control set, I argue over and against the freedom proclaimed by theorists about new media that Fight Night Round 2 positions users within a hegemonic masculine subjectivity. The essay concludes by addressing how this positioning speaks to the significance of this mediation for boxing as the game positions users in relation to the sport.