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Naroa Etxebarria, Brad Clark, Megan L. Ross, Timothy Hui, Roland Goecke, Ben Rattray, and Louise M. Burke

transduction pathway that responds to CHO is independent of those for sweetness ( Frank et al., 2008 ; Haase et al., 2009 ). This has led to the investigation of other nutrients, food chemicals, and tastants that might provide sensory-driven benefits to sports performance. Unlike CHO receptors, which can be

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Naroa Etxebarria, Megan L. Ross, Brad Clark, and Louise M. Burke

A recent addition to the range of acute nutrition strategies that can be undertaken on competition day to enhance sport performance is the intake of certain dietary components and tastants to exploit the sensory outcomes that are achieved by exposing receptors in the mouth and gastrointestinal

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Alex M. Ehlert, Hannah M. Twiddy, and Patrick B. Wilson

bitter tastants like caffeine would improve physical performance remain understudied, but early evidence points to activation of the sympathetic nervous system and brain regions involved in motor control ( Gam et al., 2016 ). A study by Rousmans et al. ( 2000 ), for example, found that a bitter solution

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Lara Lima Nabuco, Bryan Saunders, Renato André Sousa da Silva, Guilherme Eckhardt Molina, and Caio Eduardo Gonçalves Reis

interaction between caffeine and oral bitter receptors in the oral cavity linked to ergogenic effects ( Pickering, 2019 ). It is speculated that bitter taste may lead to ergogenic effects due to the interaction with bitter and caffeine receptors found in the mouth and that bitter tastants can activate certain